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Gide, Charles

(Encyclopedia) Gide, Charles shärl zhēd, 1847–1932, French economist. A professor at the universities of Bordeaux, Montpellier, and Paris, Gide was an expert on international monetary problems. He…

Gide, André

(Encyclopedia) Gide, André äNdrā´ zhēd, 1869–1951, French writer. He established a reputation as an unconventional novelist with The Immoralist (1902, tr. 1930), a partly autobiographical work in…

Nelsons, Andris

(Encyclopedia) Nelsons, Andris, 1978–, Latvian conductor. He studied piano and trumpet, and was a trumpeter with the Latvian National Opera as a teenager. After studying conducting in St. Petersburg…

Rajoelina, Andry

(Encyclopedia) Rajoelina, Andry än´drē räjōēlēn´ä, 1974–, Malagasy businessman and politician. Rajoelina was a popular disc jockey and built a successful media conglomerate. Elected mayor of…

Pretorius, Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus

(Encyclopedia) Pretorius, Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus prĭtôr´ēəs, Du. än´drēs vĭlhĕl´məs yäkō´bəs prātôr´ēəs, 1799–1853, Boer (Afrikaner) leader. He was elected (1838) commandant general of the Boers…

Graaff-Reinet

(Encyclopedia) Graaff-Reinet gräf-rī´nət, town, now part and seat of Camdeboo local municipality, Eastern Cape prov., S South Africa, on the Great Karroo. It is the center of an important farming and…

Pretorius, Martinus Wessel

(Encyclopedia) Pretorius, Martinus Wessel märtē´nəs vĕs´əl prātôr´ēəs, 1818?–1901, Boer (Afrikaner) statesman; son of Andries Pretorius. In 1857 he was elected the first president of the South…

Dufy, Raoul

(Encyclopedia) Dufy, Raoul räo͞ol´ düfē´, 1877–1953, French painter, illustrator, and decorator, studied at the École des Beaux-Arts. After meeting Matisse he abandoned his early impressionist style…

Nobel Prizes

(Encyclopedia) Nobel PrizesYearPeaceChemistryPhysicsPhysiology or MedicineLiterature1901J. H. DunantFrédéric PassyJ. H. van't HoffW. C. RoentgenE. A. von BehringR. F. A.…

Boston Symphony Orchestra

(Encyclopedia) Boston Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1881 by Henry Lee Higginson, who was its director and financial backer until 1918. The orchestra performed at the Old Boston Music Hall for nearly…