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Chemical Elements Table

See the interactive periodic table.

ElementSym-
bol
Atomic
no.
Atomic
wt.
Specific
gravity
Melting
point
°C
Boiling
point
°C
No. of
isotopes1
DiscovererYear
Actinium Ac 89 227210.0731051319811 Debierne/Giesel1899/1902
Aluminum Al 13 26.981538 2.6989 660.3225198 Wöhler 1827
Americium Am 95 243213.67 11762011134Seaborg et al. 1944
Antimony Sb 51 121.76 6.61 630.63158729 Early historic times
Argon Ar 18 39.948 1.78375-189.35-185.858 Rayleigh and Ramsay 1894
Arsenic (gray) As 33 74.9216 5.73 817 60314 Albertus Magnus 1250
Astatine At 85 2102 302 21 Corson et al. 1940
Barium Ba 56 137.327 3.5 7271897 25 Davy 1808
Berkelium Bk 97 247214.0061050 (α form)84Seaborg et al. 1949
Beryllium Be 4 9.012182 1.848 1287 24716 Vauquelin 1798
Bismuth Bi 83 208.98038 9.747 271.40 156419 Geoffroy the Younger1753
BohriumBh1072642Armbruster and Münzenberg1981
BoronB 5 10.811 2.3772075 40006 Gay-Lussac and
Thénard; Davy
1808
Bromine Br 35 79.904 3.125 -7.2 58.8 19 Balard 1826
Cadmium Cd 48 112.411 8.65 321.07 76722 Stromeyer 1817
CalciumCa 20 40.078 1.55 8421484 14 Davy 1808
Californium Cf 98 2512 900124Seaborg et al. 1950
CarbonC 6 12.0107 1.8–3.584492 (graphite)38257 Prehistoric
Cerium Ce 58 140.116 6.771 798 344319 Berzelius and Hisinger; Klaproth 1803
Cesium Cs 55 132.90545 1.873 28.5 671 22 Bunsen and Kirchoff 1860
Chlorine Cl 17 35.453 1.565-101.5 -34.04 11 Scheele 1774
Chromium Cr 24 51.9961 7.18-7.20 190726719 Vauquelin 1797
CobaltCo 27 58.9332 8.9 1495 292714 Brandt c.1735
CopperCu 29 63.546 8.96 1084.62256211 Prehistoric
Curium Cm 96 247213.51313453100134Seaborg et al. 1944
DarmstadtiumDs1102812S. Hofmann et al.1994
Dubnium Db105 2622Ghiorso et al. 1970
Dysprosium Dy 66 162.5 8.540 1412 2567 21 de Boisbaudran 1886
Einsteinium Es 99 2522860124Ghiorso et al. 1952
Erbium Er 68 167.259 9.045 1529286816 Mosander 1843
Europium Eu 63 151.964 5.283 822152921 Demarcay 1901
Fermium Fm 100 25721527104Ghiorso et al. 1953
Fluorine F 9 18.9984032 1.1085-219.67-188.126 Moissan 1886
Francium Fr 87 2232 2721 Perey 1939
Gadolinium Gd 64 157.25 7.898 1313327317 de Marignac 1880
Gallium Ga 31 69.723 5.904 29.76220414 de Boisbaudran 1875
Germanium Ge 32 72.64 5.323 938.25283317 Winkler 1886
Gold Au 79 196.96655 19.32 1064.18 285621 Prehistoric
Hafnium Hf 72 178.49 13.31 2233 460317 Coster and von Hevesy 1923
HassiumHs1082772Armbruster and Münzenberg1983
Helium He 2 4.002602 0.17855-272.2-268.9345 Janssen 1868
Holmium Ho 67 164.93032 8.781 14742700 29 Delafontaine and Soret 1878
Hydrogen H 1 1.00794 0.0705-259.34-252.873 Cavendish 1766
Indium In 49 114.818 7.31 156.60207234 Reich and Richter 1863
Iodine I 53 126.90447 4.93 113.7 184.424 Courtois 1811
Iridium Ir 77 192.217 22.42 2446442825 Tennant 1804
Iron Fe 26 55.845 7.894 15382861 10 Prehistoric
Krypton Kr 36 83.8 3.7335-157.38-153.2223 Ramsay and Travers 1898
Lanthanum La 57 138.9055 6.166 918346419 Mosander 1839
Lawrencium Lr 103 26221627204Ghiorso et al. 1961
LeadPb 82 207.2 11.35 327.46174929 Prehistoric
LithiumLi 3 6.941 0.534 180.5013425 Arfvedson 1817
Lutetium Lu 71 174.967 9.835 1663340222 Urbain/ von Welsbach1907
MagnesiumMg 12 24.305 1.738 6501090 8 Black 1755
ManganeseMn 25 54.938049 7.21–7.4491246206111 Gahn, Scheele, and
Bergman
1774
MeitneriumMt1092682GSI, Darmstadt,
West Germany
1982
MendeleviumMd 101 2582 82734Ghiorso et al. 1955
Mercury Hg 80 200.59 13.546 -38.83 356.7326 Prehistoric
Molybdenum Mo 42 95.94 10.22 2623463920 Scheele 1778
Neodymium Nd 60 144.24 6.80 & 7.004101021307416 von Welsbach 1885
Neon Ne 10 20.1797 0.89990
(g/10°C/1 atm)
-248.59-246.08 8 Ramsay and Travers 1898
NeptuniumNp 93 237220.25 644 154McMillan and Abelson 1940
Nickel Ni 28 58.6934 8.902 14552913 11 Cronstedt 1751
Niobium
(Columbium)
Nb 41 92.90638 8.57 2477474424 Hatchett 1801
NitrogenN 7 14.0067 0.8085-210.00-195.798 Rutherford 1772
Nobelium No 102 2592 82774Ghiorso et al. 1958
Osmium Os 76 190.23 22.57 3033 501219 Tennant 1803
Oxygen O 8 15.9994 1.145-218.79 -182.958 Priestley/Scheele1774
Palladium Pd 46 106.4212.02 1554.9296321 Wollaston 1803
Phosphorous
(white)
P 15 30.973761 1.82 44.15 280.57 Brand 1669
Platinum Pt 78 195.078 21.45 1768.4382532 Ulloa/Wood1735/1741
Plutonium Pu 94 244219.84 6403228164Seaborg et al. 1940
Polonium Po 84 2092 9.32 254 96234 Curie 1898
Potassium K 19 39.0983 0.862 63.5 75910 Davy 1807
Praseodymium Pr 59 140.90765 6.772 931352015 von Welsbach 1885
Promethium Pm 61 14521042300014 Marinsky et al. 1945
Protactinium Pa 91 231.03588 15.373157214 Hahn and Meitner 1917
Radium Ra 88 2262 5.0? 700 15 Pierre and Marie Curie 1898
Radon Rn 86 2222 4.45 -71 -61.720 Dorn 1900
Rhenium Re 75 186.207 21.02 3186559621 Noddack, Berg, and Tacke 1925
Rhodium Rh 45 102.9055 12.41 1964369520 Wollaston 1803
Roentgenium10Rg 111 2722Hofmann et al.1994
Rubidium Rb 37 85.4678 1.532 39.30 68820 Bunsen and Kirchoff 1861
Ruthenium Ru 44 101.0712.44 2334415016 Klaus 1844
Rutherfordium Rf 104 2612Ghiorso et al. 1969
Samarium Sm 62 150.36 7.536 1074179417 Boisbaudran 1879
Scandium Sc 21 44.95591 2.989 1541283615 Nilson 1878
Seaborgium Sg 106 2662Ghiorso et al. 1974
Selenium
(gray)
Se 34 78.96 4.79 220.5 68520Berzelius 1817
Silicon Si 14 28.0855 2.33 141432658 Berzelius 1824
Silver Ag 47 107.8682 10.5 961.78216227 Prehistoric
Sodium Na 11 22.98977 0.971 97.80 8837 Davy 1807
Strontium Sr 38 87.62 2.54 777138218 Davy 1808
Sulfur S 16 32.065 2.0710 95.3 (rhombic) 444.6010 Prehistoric
Tantalum Ta 73 180.9479 16.654 3017545819 Ekeberg 1801
Technetium Tc 43 98211.50321574265 23 Perrier and Segré 1937
Tellurium Te 52 127.60 6.24 449.51 98829 von Reichenstein 1782
Terbium Tb 65 158.92534 8.234 1356323024 Mosander 1843
Thallium Tl 81 204.3833 11.85 304147328 Crookes 1861
Thorium Th 90 232.0381 11.72 1750478812 Berzelius 1828
Thulium Tm 69 168.93421 9.314 1545195018 Cleve 1879
Tin (white) Sn 50 118.71 7.31 231.93260228 Prehistoric
Titanium Ti 22 47.867 4.55 1668 32879 Gregor 1791
TungstenW 74 183.84 19.3 3422 555522 J. and F. d'Elhuyar 1783
Uranium U 92 238.02891 19.05 1135413115 Peligot 1841
Vanadium V 23 50.9415 6.11 191034079 del Rio 1801
Xenon Xe 54 131.293 3.525-111.79-108.1231 Ramsay and Travers 1898
Ytterbium Yb 70 173.04 6.972 819119616 Marignac 1878
Yttrium Y 39 88.90585 4.457 1522334521 Gadolin 1794
Zinc Zn 30 65.39 7.133 419.5 90715 Prehistoric
Zirconium Zr 40 91.224 6.50631855440920 Klaproth 1789
NOTES: Elements 112, 113, 114, 115, and 116 are under review and are thus not included. approximately means “approximately.” < means “less than.”
1. Isotopes are different forms of the same element having the same atomic number but different atomic weights.
2. Mass number of the longest-lived isotope that is known.
3. Calculated figure.
4. Artificially produced.
5. Liquid.
6. Estimated.
7. Amorphous.
8. Depending on whether amorphous, graphite, or diamond.
9. Depending on allotropic form.
10. In 2004, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry named element 111 Roentgenium after the discoverer of x-rays, Wilhelm Roentgen.

The Periodic TablePhysical ScienceA Weighty Discovery in Particle Physics