Thomas Penfield Jackson,

federal judge, ruled in March that Microsoft violated the Sherman Antitrust Act by exercising monopoly control over PC operating systems and using its power to the detriment of consumers. Citing Microsoft's predatory actions, Jackson said the software giant kept “an oppressive thumb on the scale of competitive fortune.” In June, he ordered the company to be broken up into two parts: applications and operating systems. Microsoft's Bill Gates appealed the decision.