U.S. History: Progressive Era and World Wars - 1900–1949

U.S. History Timeline: Progressive ERA &

World Wars 1900-1949

Read about major events in U.S. History from 1900–1949, including the San Francisco earthquake, Great Depression, World War II, and more.


September 8

  • Galveston hurricane leaves an estimated 6,000 to 8,000 dead. According to the census, the nation's population numbers nearly 76 million.


March 4

  • McKinley's second inauguration.

September 6

September 14

  • He later dies from his wounds and is succeeded by his vice president, Theodore Roosevelt.


Treaty signed November 17

December 17

  • Wright brothers make the first controlled, sustained flight in heavier-than-air aircraft at Kitty Hawk, N.C.
    Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk
    Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk


March 4

  • Theodore Roosevelt's second inauguration.


April 18


March 4

  • William Howard Taft is inaugurated as the 27th president.
  • Mrs. Taft has 80 Japanese cherry trees planted along the banks of the Potomac River.
    Cherry Trees in Blossom at the Washington Monument
    Cherry Trees in Blossom at the Washington Monument


March 4

  • Woodrow Wilson is inaugurated as the 28th president.

April 8

  • Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, providing for the direct election of U.S. senators by popular vote rather than by the state legislatures.

1914 –

  • World War I: U.S. enters World War I, declaring war on Germany (April 6, 1917) and Austria-Hungary (Dec. 7, 1917) three years after conflict began in 1914.

Nov. 11, 1918

  • Armistice ending World War I is signed.


August 15

  • Panama Canal opens to traffic.


January 25

  • First long distance telephone service, between New York and San Francisco, is demonstrated.


Treaty signed Aug. 14

  • U.S. agrees to purchase Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands) for $25 million.

November 7

  • Jeannette Rankin of Montana is the first woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
    Jeannette Rankin
    Jeannette Rankin


March 5

  • Wilson's second inauguration.

May 15

  • First regular airmail service begins, with one round trip a day between Washington, DC, and New York.


  • Worldwide influenza epidemic strikes; by 1920, nearly 20 million are dead. In U.S., 500,000 perish.


January 13

January 16

  • Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor. It is later repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment in 1933.

August 18

September 26

  • President Wilson suffers a stroke.

November 19

  • Treaty of Versailles, outlining terms for peace at the end of World War I, is rejected by the Senate.


March 4

  • Warren G. Harding is inaugurated as the 29th president.

July 2

  • He signs resolution declaring peace with Austria and Germany.


Aug. 2

  • President Harding dies suddenly. He is succeeded by his vice president, Calvin Coolidge.


  • Teapot Dome scandal breaks, as Senate launches an investigation into improper leasing of naval oil reserves during Harding administration.


March 4

  • Coolidge's second inauguration.

March 23

  • Tennessee passes a law against the teaching of evolution in public schools.

July 10–25


May 20–21

  • Charles Lindbergh makes the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight in his plane The Spirit of St. Louis.
    Charles Lindbergh
    Charles Lindbergh


March 4

  • Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as the 31st president.

October 29


March 3

  • The Star-Spangled Banner is adopted as the national anthem.


January 12

  • Hattie Wyatt Caraway of Arkansas is the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate, to fill a vacancy caused by the death of her husband. She is reelected in 1932 and 1938.
    Hattie Wyatt Caraway
    Hattie Wyatt Caraway

May 21

  • Amelia Earhart completes first solo nonstop transatlantic flight by a woman.


January 23

  • Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution, sometimes called the “Lame Duck Amendment,” is ratified, moving the president's inauguration date from March 4 to Jan. 20.

March 4

  • Franklin Roosevelt is inaugurated as the 32nd president.

March 9 – June 16

  • New Deal recovery measures are enacted by Congress.

December 5


April 8

August 14


Jan. 20

  • F. Roosevelt's second inauguration.


June 25

1939 –

September 5, 1939

  • World War II: U.S. declares its neutrality in European conflict.

January 20, 1941

  • F. Roosevelt's third inauguration. He is the first and only president elected to a third term.

December 7, 1941

  • Japan attacks Hawaii, Guam, and the Philippines.

December 8

  • U.S. declares war on Japan.

December 11

  • Germany and Italy declare war on the United States; U.S. reciprocates by declaring war on both countries.

October – December 1942

  • Allies invade North Africa.

September – December 1943

  • Allies invade Italy.

June 6, 1944

  • Allies invade France on D-Day.

January 20, 1945

  • F. Roosevelt's fourth inauguration

February 4 – 11

  • President Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet at Yalta in the USSR to discuss postwar occupation of Germany.

April 12

  • President Roosevelt dies of a stroke and is succeeded by his vice president, Harry Truman.

May 7

  • Germany surrenders unconditionally.

July 16

  • First atomic bomb is detonated at Alamogordo, N.M.

July 17 – August 2

  • President Truman, Churchill, and Stalin meet at Potsdam, near Berlin, Germany, to demand Japan's unconditional surrender and to discuss plans for postwar Europe.

August 6

  • U.S. drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.
    Bomb cloud at Hiroshima
    Bomb cloud at Hiroshima

August 9

  • U.S. drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.

August 14

  • Japan agrees to unconditional surrender.

September 2

  • Japanese envoys sign surrender terms aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo harbor.


October 24

  • United Nations is established.


July 4

  • The Philippines, which had been ceded to the U.S. by Spain at the end of the Spanish-American War, becomes an independent republic.


July 18


April 2

  • Congress passes foreign aid bill including the Marshall Plan, which provides for European postwar recovery.

June 24

  • Soviets begin blockade of Berlin in the first major crisis of the cold war.

June 26

  • In response, U.S. and Great Britain begin airlift of food and fuel to West Berlin.


Jan. 20

  • Truman's second inauguration.

April 4

  • Soviets end blockade of Berlin (May 12), but airlift continues until Sept. 30.
U.S. History Timeline