1400–1499 (A.D.) World History
Linda J. Barnes
- Casa di San Giorgio, one of the first public banks, founded in Genoa.
- Henry V defeats French at Agincourt. Jan Hus, Bohemian preacher and follower of Wycliffe, burned at stake in Constance as heretic.
- Portugal's Prince Henry the Navigator sponsors exploration of Africa's coast.
- Brunelleschi begins work on the Duomo in Florence.
- Joan of Arc leads French against English, captured by Burgundians (1430) and turned over to the English, burned at the stake as a witch after ecclesiastical trial (1431).
- Incas rule in Peru.
- Florence becomes center of Renaissance arts and learning under the Medicis.
- The Wars of the Roses, civil wars between rival noble factions, begin in England (to 1485). Having invented printing with movable type at Mainz, Germany, Johann Gutenberg completes first Bible.
- Ivan the Great rules Russia until 1505 as first czar; ends payment of tribute to Mongols.
- Moors conquered in Spain by troops of Ferdinand and Isabella. Columbus becomes first European to encounter Caribbean islands, returns to Spain (1493). Second voyage to Dominica, Jamaica, Puerto Rico (1493–1496). Third voyage to Orinoco (1498). Fourth voyage to Honduras and Panama (1502–1504).
- Vasco da Gama sails around Africa and discovers sea route to India (1498). Establishes Portuguese colony in India (1502). John Cabot, employed by England, reaches and explores Canadian coast. Michelangelo's Bacchus sculpture.