Guide to New Nations: Caucasus

by David Johnson


On August 23, 1991, Armenia proclaimed its independence. The former Soviet republic invaded neighboring Azerbaijan to aid ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh, who had declared independence from Muslim Azerbaijan. A cease-fire was reached in 1994, but no permanent peace deal has been signed. Armenia effectively controls the area.

Armenia flag

Armenia Flag

Map of Armenia

Infoplease Atlas: Armenia


Azerbaijan, a former Soviet republic, declared its independence on August 30, 1991. In the early 1990s, Armenia seized almost 20% of Azerbaijan's territory, generating 750,000 Azerbaijani refugees. Armenia was acting on behalf of ethnic Armenians in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, who favored independence or unification with Armenia. A cease-fire has been in effect since 1994, but no permanent peace deal has been signed.


Azerbaijan Flag

Map of Azerbaijan

Infoplease Atlas: Azerbaijan


Georgia proclaimed its independence on April 6, 1991. At first, the former Soviet republic was unstable. However, a new constitution was adopted in 1995. The following year a cease-fire agreement was signed with secessionist rebels in South Ossetia. Violence periodically flares between Georgian troops and rebels in Abkhazia.

Georgia flag

Georgia Flag

Map of Georgia

Infoplease Atlas: Georgia

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