fortification, system of defense structures for protection from enemy attacks. Fortification developed along two general lines: permanent sites built in peacetime, and emplacements and obstacles hastily constructed in the field in time of war.
Sections in this article:
- Development of Fortress Chains
- Rise of Field Fortifications
- Ancient and Medieval Fortifications
- Effect of Artillery
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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