# probability

### Introduction

**probability,**in mathematics, assignment of a number as a measure of the

chancethat a given event will occur. There are certain important restrictions on such a probability measure. In any experiment there are certain possible outcomes; the set of all possible outcomes is called the sample space of the experiment. To each element of the sample space (i.e., to each possible outcome) is assigned a probability measure between 0 and 1 inclusive (0 is sometimes described as corresponding to impossibility, 1 to certainty). Furthermore, the sum of the probability measures in the sample space must be 1.

#### Sections in this article:

- Introduction
- Probability of Simple and Compound Events
- Permutations and Combinations
- Statistical Inference
- Bibliography

*The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia,* 6th ed. Copyright © 2023, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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