Complexity theory had its beginnings with American mathematician Norbert Wiener's development of cybernetics , Canadian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy's development of general system theory, and American mathematician John H. Holland's development of a computerized artificial life simulation. More recent efforts are centered at the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico, which was established in 1984, and are found in the work of multidisciplinary researchers such as American economist Kenneth Arrow and American physicist Murray Gell-Mann. Because complex systems typically cross the boundaries of traditional disciplines, the study of complexity is an interdisciplinary science. Much of the progress in the field can be attributed to advances in nonlinear dynamics , in the power of computers and in computer graphics , and in adaptive programs and fuzzy logic .
See M. M. Waldrop, Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos (1992); R. Lewin, Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos (1993); J. H. Holland, Hidden Order (1995).
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