Alferov, Zhores Ivanovich
Alferov, Zhores Ivanovich, 1930–, Russian physicist, Ph.D. V. I. Ulyanov Electrotechnical Institute, 1952. He joined the research staff of the A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, and was promoted to director in 1987. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer , who worked separately, shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics with Jack Kilby for inventing and developing fast opto- and microelectronic components based on layered semiconductor structures, known as heterostructures. Developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the technology underlies a broad array of modern devices and systems, including satellite communications, cellular telephones, fiber-optics, bar-code readers, and laser pointers. Alferov also has served in the Russian State Duma, to which he was first elected in 1995.
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