Gregory XVI, 1765–1846, pope (1831–46), an Italian named Bartolomeo Alberto Capellari, b. Belluno; successor of Pius VIII. In 1783 he became a Camaldolite and was (1825) created cardinal. Gregory was a conservative both in politics and theology, and he was continually opposed by liberals throughout Europe. His most famous act was the condemnation of Father Lamennais with the encyclical Mirari vos (1832). In 1831 the Carbonari outbreaks spread to Rome, and only Austrian help suppressed them. He nearly came to an open break over anticlerical legislation in Spain and Portugal, and he had a long controversy with Prussia. Gregory was actively interested in propagating the faith in England and the United States. He was succeeded by Pius IX.
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