Places of interest include the state capitol (1785), designed by Thomas Jefferson the Washington Monument the Valentine Museum the White House of the Confederacy, once the home of Jefferson Davis, and next to it the Museum of the Confederacy the American Civil War Center St. John's Church (1742), where Patrick Henry made his famous
Give me liberty, or give me death
speech the Edgar Allan Poe Museum (in the oldest surviving building in the city, built c.1740) the Robert E. Lee House (1844) Monument Ave., with its statues of Confederate leaders and tennis player Arthur
Hollywood Cemetery (1847) the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and the Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden.
The first permanent settlement was made in 1637. Fort Charles was built in 1645, and the site became a trading center. The city was laid out in 1737 under the patronage of William Byrd . It was made the capital of Virginia in 1779 and was raided by the British in 1781. During the Civil War, Richmond became the capital of the Confederacy and the constant objective of Union forces. The city was seriously threatened in the Peninsular campaign (1862), when it was saved by the Seven Days battles in the Wilderness campaign (1864) and in Grant's campaign of 1864–65 around Petersburg , which culminated in Richmond's fall. Much of the city was burned during the Confederate evacuation, Apr. 3, 1865. Richmond National Battlefield Park (see National Parks and Monuments , table) includes several of the battlefields.
See E. M. Thomas, The Confederate State of Richmond (1971) L. White-Raible, Richmond: A Renaissance City (1988).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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