Braşov bräshôv´ [key], Hung. Brassó, Ger. Kronstadt, city (1990 pop. 364,307), central Romania, in Transylvania, at the foot of the Transylvanian Alps. The administrative center of the Braşov region, the city is a road and rail junction and a major industrial center. Tractors, trucks, helicopters, chemicals, and textiles are among the chief manufactures. The city is also a noted resort and winter sports center. Founded in the 13th cent. by the Teutonic Knights, Braşov was a major center of trade and industry in the Middle Ages. It enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Hapsburg empire. After World War I the city, along with Transylvania, was ceded by Hungary to Romania. There are sizable German and Hungarian minorities. From 1950 to 1960, Braşov was called Stalin or Oraşul-Stalin (city of Stalin). It has a large 14th-century church (called the Black Church because of fire damage in 1689), the 13th-century St. Bartholomew Church, and the 14th-century St. Nicholas Church (rebuilt 1751). Parts of the medieval town wall and the 17th-century citadel remain intact. There is also a polytechnic institute.
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