Bosporus bŏs´pərəs [key] or Bosphorus –pərəs [key] [Gr.,=ox ford, in reference to the story of Io ], Turk. Boğaziçi, strait, c.20 mi (30 km) long and c.2,100 ft (640 m) wide at its narrowest, separating European from Asian Turkey and joining the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara . İstanbul is on the Bosporus. At its narrowest point stand two famous castles: Anadolu Hisar (1390) on the Asian side and Rumeli Hisar (1452) on the European side. With the Dardanelles , the Bosporus connects the Black Sea with the Mediterranean it is thought to have been a dry riverbed as recently as 7,600 years ago. The Bosporus Bridge, one of the world's longest suspension bridges (3,524 ft/1,074 m long opened 1973) spans the strait at İstanbul. A second bridge was completed in 1988, and a railroad tunnel under the strait opened in 2013. In 2011 the Turkish government proposed building a canal parallel to the Bosporus to reduce the shipping congestion in the strait.

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