Neosho nē-ō´shō, –shə [key], river, c.460 mi (740 km) long, rising in E central Kansas and flowing southeast into NE Okla. (where it is generally known as the Grand River) then south to join the Arkansas River near Muskogee, Okla. Pensacola Dam (which impounds the huge Lake of the Cherokees) and Fort Gibson dam and reservoir are in NE Oklahoma; there are several flood control units on the river in Kansas.
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