, independent nation (2015 est. pop. 35,950,000), 3,851,787 sq mi (9,976,128 sq km), N North America. The second largest country in the world in area, Canada occupies all of North America N of the United States (and E of Alaska) except for Greenland and the French islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. It is bounded on the E by the Atlantic Ocean, on the N by the Arctic Ocean, and on the W by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska. A transcontinental border, formed in part by the Great Lakes, divides Canada from the United States; Nares and Davis straits separate Canada from Greenland. The Arctic Archipelago
extends far into the Arctic Ocean.
Canada is a federation of 10 provinces— Newfoundland and Labrador , Nova Scotia , New Brunswick , Prince Edward Island , Quebec , Ontario , Manitoba , Saskatchewan , Alberta , and British Columbia —and three territories— Nunavut , the Northwest Territories , and Yukon . Canada's capital is Ottawa and its largest city is Toronto . Other important cities include Montreal , Vancouver , Edmonton , Calgary , Winnipeg , Hamilton , and Quebec .
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