See S. H. Longrigg, Syria and Lebanon under French Mandate (1958, repr. 1972); A. H. Hourani, Syria and Lebanon (1977); A. I. Dawisha, Syria and the Lebanese Crisis (1980); L. B. Paton, The Early History of Syria and Palestine (1981); R. W. Olson, The Ba'ath and Syria, 1947–1982 (1982); P. Seale, The Struggle for Syria (1987); F. Ajami, The Syrian Rebellion (2012); N. Hashemi and D. Postel, ed., The Syria Dilemma (2013); C. R. Lister, The Syrian Jihad (2016).

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