Long a famous port, Goa was known to Arab seafarers. It had been ruled by Kandamba dynasty for more than a millennium when it was conquered by Muslim forces in 1312. Goa became part of the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar in 1370 but was recaptured by Muslims 100 years later. The Portuguese under Afonso de Albuquerque annexed it in 1510 from territory belonging to the sultan of Bijapur. Goa was invaded by Indian troops in 1961 and incorporated into India in 1962.
Old Goa, the original capital, was a prosperous port city in the late 16th cent. A cathedral, churches, and several palaces survive from this period. The most notable structure is the Church of Bom Jesus, with its tomb of St. Francis Xavier, who did missionary work in the region (1542–52). In 1842, Panjim was built to replace Old Goa as capital.
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