A Portuguese protectorate was established in Cabinda in 1880s; in the 1950s the region was absorbed into Portugal's overseas province of Angola. Cabinda was the scene of heavy fighting during the war for independence from Portugal (1961–75). After independence, the region did not benefit from its offshore oil wealth, fueling resentment of the Angolan government and persistent fighting by Cabindan separatists. The Angolan army, which has been accused of human rights abuses in Cabinda, gained the upper hand in the fighting in 2002. In 2006 the main separatist group declared a cease-fire and then was a party to a peace agreement for the province, but splinter forces have continued to fight.
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