Although generally considered a founder of
, Heidegger vehemently rejected the association, just as he came to reject Husserl's phenomenology. Heidegger's fundamental concern, as announced in
Sein und Zeit
and developed in his subsequent works, is the problem of being. In
Sein und Zeit,
being is shown to be intimately linked with temporality the relationship between them is investigated by means of an analysis of human existence. Strongly influenced by Sören Kierkegaard, Heidegger delineated various aspects of human existence, such as
and the individual's relationship to death, and related the authenticity of being, as well as the anguish of modern society, to the individual's confrontation with his own temporality. It was this work and its influence upon Jean-Paul
that have led many critics to consider Heidegger an existentialist. In addition to its influence on Sartre, Heidegger's thought influenced both modern Protestant theology (through Paul
) and the work of Jacques
and other advocates of
The ontological aspect of Heidegger's thought assumed greater prominence in his later writings, which included studies of poetry and of dehumanization in modern society. Heidegger considered himself the first thinker in the history of Western philosophy to have raised explicitly the question concerning the
sense of being,
and he located the crisis of Western civilization in mass
forgetfulness of being.
Among his other works are
Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics
(1929, tr. 1962),
What Is Metaphysics?
(1929, tr. 1949),
An Introduction to Metaphysics
(1953, tr. 1959),
What Is Philosophy?
(1956, tr. 1958), and
The End of Philosophy
(1956, tr. 1973).
See studies by T. Langan (1959), M. King (1964), J. M. Demske (1963, tr. 1970), L. M. Vail (1972), S. L. Binderman (1981), H. G. Wolz (1981), R. Wolin (1990 ed., 1993 and 2001), K. Lowith (tr. 1995), R. Safranski (1998), and P. E. Gordon (2010) V. Farias, Heidegger and Nazism (1987) E. Ettinger, Hannah Arendt, Martin Heidegger (1995) and D. Villa, Arendt and Heidegger: The Fate of the Political (1995).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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