performancesin theaters to which they charged admission, attracting attention and skepticism. Since spiritualist mediums were one of the few professional groups in which women outnumbered men, some clergy attacked them and other female mediums. Horace Greeley and Robert Owen publically defended their claims. In 1888, Margaret admitted that the effects were fraudulent, but later recanted her admission. In recent years, a number of feminist historians have lauded such efforts by women at spiritual leadership. See spiritism .
See A. Braude, Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Women's Rights in 19th Century America (1989).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
See more Encyclopedia articles on: Miscellaneous Religion: Biographies
Browse by Subject
- Earth and the Environment +-
- History +-
- Literature and the Arts +-
- Medicine +-
- People +-
- Philosophy and Religion +-
- Places +-
- Australia and Oceania
- Britain, Ireland, France, and the Low Countries
- Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Nations
- Germany, Scandinavia, and Central Europe
- Latin America and the Caribbean
- Oceans, Continents, and Polar Regions
- Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, and the Balkans
- United States, Canada, and Greenland
- Plants and Animals +-
- Science and Technology +-
- Social Sciences and the Law +-
- Sports and Everyday Life +-