In the 1970s Bergman mainly focused his work on domestic issues, dramatized through traumatic, usually unworkable personal relationships, as in the harrowing Cries and Whispers (1972), the stormy Scenes from a Marriage (1974), and the psychological family drama Autumn Sonata (1978). Bergman briefly exiled himself from Sweden after a dispute (1976) with tax authorities, but returned to make his self-proclaimed final, and surprisingly optimistic, semiautobiographical film about family and childhood, Fanny and Alexander (1982, Academy Award).
Having successfully written and directed numerous works for the Swedish theater since the 1950s, he continued to work in theater, television, and opera late in his career. He also wrote autobiographical screenplays adapted from his earlier novels for the films The Best Intentions (1992), directed by Bille August Sunday's Children (1993), directed by his son, Daniel Bergman and Private Confessions (1998) directed by Liv Ullmann , who also directed Bergman's Faithless (2000). He also directed a number of classic plays for the Royal Dramatic Theater of Sweden, e.g., Strindberg's The Ghost Sonata (2001). His made-for-television drama Saraband (2003), a bleak epilogue to Scenes from a Marriage, was Bergman's final statement on film.
See his autobiographies (1987, 1994) Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (tr. 1960) S. Björkman, T. Manns, and J. Sima, Bergman on Bergman: Interviews with Ingmar Bergman (1973, tr. 1975, repr. 1993) biographies by B. Steene (1967) and P. Cowie (upd. ed. 1992) studies by V. Young (1971), F. Marker and L.-L. Marker (1982, repr. 1992), F. Gado (1986), R. E. Long (1994), R. W. Oliver, ed. (1995), J. Vermilye (1998), J. Kalin (2003), L. Hubner (2007), and I. Singer (2007) M. Nyrerod, dir. Bergman Island (documentary film, 2006).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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