Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3d duke of

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3d duke of, 1473–1554, English nobleman, prominent in the reign of Henry VIII; son of Thomas Howard, the 2d duke. He married (1495) a daughter of Edward IV and thus became brother-in-law to Henry VII. He fought (1513) against the Scots at Flodden and became (1514) earl of Surrey when his father was made duke of Norfolk. After his first wife's death he married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Stafford, 3d duke of Buckingham. He served (1520–21) as lord lieutenant of Ireland. Succeeding his father as lord high treasurer in 1522 and as duke of Norfolk in 1524, Norfolk led the opposition to Thomas, Cardinal Wolsey. He supported Henry VIII's divorce from Katharine of Aragón and his marriage (1533) to Norfolk's niece Anne Boleyn. Later he presided (1536) at the trial and execution of Anne. Although Norfolk conducted the campaign against the Pilgrimage of Grace (1536), he remained Catholic. He was an enemy of Thomas Cromwell and instrumental in bringing about his fall (1540). After the execution in 1542 of another of his nieces, Catherine Howard, Henry's fifth queen, Norfolk's influence waned, and he was forced back into the position of a mere military commander. In 1546 he and his son Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, were charged with treason. Surrey was executed, but Norfolk was saved by the death of the king. He was released (1553) from prison on the accession of Mary I and restored to his dukedom. He successfully led the forces against the rebellion (1554) of Sir Thomas Wyatt, the younger.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2024, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: British and Irish History: Biographies