Orléans, Gaston, duc d' [key], 1608–60, son of King Henry IV and Marie de' Medici, younger brother of Louis XIII. He took part in many of the conspiracies of the great nobles against Louis XIII's minister, Cardinal Richelieu, and several times fled from France. Although Gaston was pardoned after each revolt, his associates did not fare so well; the younger Henri de Montmorency and the marquis de Cinq Mars were executed. After the death (1643) of Louis XIII, Gaston became lieutenant general of France and successfully campaigned against the Spanish. For his leading part in the Fronde he was exiled (1652) to Blois. Gaston was the father of Mlle de Montpensier.
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