Cite
 

malaria

Introduction

malaria, infectious parasitic disease that can be either acute or chronic and is frequently recurrent. Malaria is common in Africa, Central and South America, the Mediterranean countries, Asia, and many of the Pacific islands. In the United States it was found in the South and less frequently in the northern and western parts of the country.

Plasmodium falciparum is the most deadly of all the five Plasmodium parasites that typically cause malaria in humans. All the species require both the Anopheles mosquito and humans to complete the life cycle. Sexual reproduction of the protozoans occurs in the mosquito; an immature form is then transmitted to the human via the bite of the mosquito. In a person the parasite goes to the liver, replicates, and moves into the bloodstream, where it attacks red blood cells for their hemoglobin. Some of the plasmodia become sexually mature and are transmitted back to another biting mosquito. P. knowlesi, however, is primarily transmitted from monkeys to humans via mosquitoes.

Sections in this article:

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Pathology

Browse by Subject

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.