music. For information on types of music see such articles as absolute music aleatory music chamber music church music computer music electronic music jazz program music rock music serial music and spiritual . In addition, see entries on the music of various nations and peoples, including African music Arabian music Balinese music Chinese music Greek music Hindu music Japanese music Javanese music and Jewish liturgical music . The technical aspects of music, such as theory, notation, and tone, are treated in such general articles as theory and musical notation , and in more specific entries, including counterpoint harmonic harmony key measure mode musicology note pitch polyphony rhythm scale syncopation tablature temperament tonality tone transposing instrument and tuning systems . There are numerous articles on various musical forms, including cantata concerto march nocturne opera oratorio polonaise sonata song and symphony . In addition to such survey articles as concert conducting musical instruments music festivals orchestra and orchestration , there are separate articles on musical instruments, treated singly, e.g., clarinet harp trumpet , or in groups, e.g., reed instrument stringed instrument . In addition to the entry on voice , there are separate articles on alto baritone countertenor soprano and tenor . Information on individual composers and performers can be found in biographical entries on composers, e.g. Monteverdi , Claudio Puccini , Giacomo and Schubert , Franz Peter musicians, e.g., Beiderbecke, Bix Gieseking, Walter Richter, Sviatoslav and singers, e.g., Deller, Alfred Merrill, Robert Sembrich, Marcella and Sinatra, Frank .

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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