Later in his career Hockney became interested in the historical relationship between representational painters and optical devices. In Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Lost Techniques of the Old Masters (2001, rev. ed. 2006) and elsewhere he asserted that from about 1430 to 1860 many painters in the Western tradition used innovations in visual technology such as lenses, mirrors, the camera obscura, and the camera lucida to produce their strikingly realistic effects. He also maintained that after the invention (1839) of daguerreotype photography, artists began to search for and capture a new visual truth not found in photographs, and the beginnings of modernism were born. In 2005 Hockney returned to his native Yorkshire where he painted large colorful local landscapes, e.g., The Arrival of Spring in Woldgate, East Yorkshire in 2011, often creating one or more paintings a day, and sometimes creating mural-sized landscapes. He also continued experimenting with digital technology, e.g., producing printed computer portrait drawings and painting with smartphone and computer tablet software.
See his autobiographies (1976, 1993), ed. by N. Stangos Hockney on Photography: Conversations with Paul Joyce (1988) biography by C. S. Sykes (Vol. I, 2012) G. Evans, ed., Hockney's Pictures: The Definitive Retrospective (2004) M. Livingstone, et al., David Hockney: A Bigger Picture (2012) studies by M. Livingstone (1981, enl. ed. 1996), P. Webb (1988), K. E. Silver (1994), P. Clothier (1995), P. Melia, ed. (1995) and P. Melia and U. Luckhardt (2006).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
See more Encyclopedia articles on: European Art, 1600 to the Present: Biographies
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