Toledo, Francisco de [key], 1515?–84, Spanish viceroy of Peru (1569–81). He came from one of the noblest families of Spain and had served Charles V and Philip II with distinction before being chosen as viceroy. His administration in Peru marked the end of the tumultuous period after the Spanish Conquest. He made tours of inspection through the territories, reorganized governmental administration and finance, and attempted to reform conditions in the church. Whenever possible, he adopted the ancient Inca laws. He broke the power of the encomenderos (the large estate owners), reducing them to obedience to the crown and to the viceroy. He reorganized the Univ. of San Marcos. The one great blot on his administration was the unjust execution (1571) of the Inca leader, Tupac Amaru, after trouble between the Spanish and the Incas.
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