Ferdinand I or Ferrante fār-rän´tā [key], 1423–94, king of Naples (1458–94), illegitimate son and successor (in Naples) of Alfonso V of Aragón. His succession was challenged by Pope Calixtus III, but Pope Pius II made peace with him. Ferdinand promoted commerce, industry, and education, but exercised strict royal control. The great barons, provoked by his ruthless authoritarian policies, called in (1459) John of Anjou, son of René , the rival king of Naples. The barons were defeated (1462) at Troja, and John soon departed. Another conspiracy in 1485 was crushed. Ferdinand's son Alfonso (later Alfonso II) reconquered (1481) the port of Otranto from the Turks. Ferdinand was succeeded by Alfonso II (1494–95), Ferdinand II (1495–96), and Frederick (1496–1501), none of whom was able to defend the kingdom of Naples against France and Spain in the Italian Wars .
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