Bülow, Bernhard Heinrich Martin, Fürst von

Bülow, Bernhard Heinrich Martin, Fürst von bĕrnˈhärt hīnˈrĭkh märˈtĭn fŭrst fən büˈlō [key], 1849–1929, German chancellor. He held many diplomatic posts before he became, through the influence of Friedrich von Holstein, foreign secretary in 1897 and succeeded Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst as chancellor in 1900. He inadvertently increased German isolation by his failure to gain the friendship of England and by his aggressive foreign policy. He antagonized France by his actions in the Moroccan crisis of 1905 (see Morocco). Bülow later alienated Russia in the Bosnian crisis of 1908 by thwarting Russian goals for the opening of the Dardanelles and supporting Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result he strengthened the Triple Entente between Great Britain, France, and Russia (see Triple Alliance and Triple Entente). Bülow lost the confidence of Emperor William II in the Daily Telegraph affair (Oct., 1908) in which William indiscreetly revealed his foreign policy toward Britain in an interview with the London newspaper; the interview caused a national uproar. Bülow had approved the text of William's remarks, but had not read them. Bülow subsequently lost support in the Reichstag over a proposed tax and was forced to resign in 1909. He later (1914–15) was ambassador to Italy.

See his memoirs (tr. 4 vol., 1931–32).

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