The house of Valois-Orléans was founded by Louis, duc d' Orléans (see separate article), whose assassination (1407) caused the civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundians . This house ascended the French throne (1498) in the person of Louis XII, who died without male issue. Gaston, brother of Louis XIII, was made duke of Orléans (see separate article), but died without a male heir.
The modern house of Bourbon-Orléans was founded by
Philippe I's son,
To deal with the financial crisis, Orléans called on John Law , who established a royal bank, but Law's financial schemes collapsed in 1720. Foreign affairs under the regency were conducted by Guillaume Dubois . Orléans concluded the Quadruple Alliance of 1718 and made war on Spain (1719–20). Social life during his regency reached an apex of licentiousness. The ambitions of the regent and his descendants ultimately brought the house of Orléans into open opposition to the ruling house.
See W. H. Lewis, The Scandalous Regent (1961) C. Pevitt, Philippe, Duc d'Orléans: Regent of France (1997).
The regent's great-grandson, Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d' Orléans , called Philippe Égalité (see separate article), supported the French Revolution. His adherents, the Orleanists, who sought a compromise between the monarchical and the revolutionary principles, came into power by the July Revolution of 1830 and put Philippe Égalité's son Louis Philippe on the French throne. Representatives of the capitalist upper bourgeoisie, the Orleanists limited their definition of revolutionary liberty to the middle class. After the fall of Louis Philippe (1848), they continued to support the claims of his descendants, the Orleanist pretenders, who returned from exile after the fall of Napoleon III (1871). Their prospects, though high under the presidency of Marshal MacMahon , dwindled steadily, especially after the Third Republic exiled all pretenders in 1886.
Louis Philippe's eldest son,
Ferdinand Philippe's eldest son,
Louis Philippe Albert's brother,
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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