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Billaud-Varenne, Jean Nicolas

Billaud-Varenne, Jean Nicolas zhäk nēkōlä´ bēyō´-värĕn´ [key], 1756–1819, French revolutionary. A violent antimonarchist in the Convention, the revolutionary national assembly, he and Jean Marie Collot d'Herbois were the two members of the ultrarevolutionary Hebértists (see Hébert, Jacques René ) faction to sit on the Committee of Public Safety. A consumate politician, he survived the execution of Hébert, sucessfully intruiged against Georges Danton , and helped bring about the downfall of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor . He was deported to French Guiana for his role in the Reign of Terror . He refused an amnesty offered by Napoleon Bonaparte (later Emperor Napoleon I ). Ultimately he went to Haiti, where he died.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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