San Stefano, Treaty of [key], 1878, peace treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, at the conclusion of the last of the Russo-Turkish Wars; it was signed at San Stefano (now Yeşilköy), a village W of İstanbul, Turkey. The Ottomans ceded to Russia parts of Armenia and the Dobruja; agreed to pay a very large indemnity; recognized the independence of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro; and increased the territories of Serbia and Montenegro. Bulgaria was made an autonomous principality and was immensely enlarged, and the Ottoman Empire promised reforms for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Because the treaty modified the Treaty of Paris of 1856 (see Paris, Congress of) and greatly increased Russian influence in SE Europe, the other great powers obtained its revision at an international conference (see Berlin, Congress of).
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