Mycenaean civilization mīsēnē´ən [key]
, an ancient Aegean civilization
known from the excavations at Mycenae
and other sites. They were first undertaken by Heinrich Schliemann
and others after 1876, and they helped to revise the early history of Greece. Divided into Early Helladic (c.2800–2000 BC), Middle Helladic (c.2000–1500 BC), and Late Helladic (c.1500–1100 BC) periods, the chronology roughly parallels that of the contemporary Minoan civilization
. The Mycenaeans entered Greece from the north or northeast c.2000 BC, displacing, seemingly without violence, the older Neolithic culture, which can be dated as early as 4000 BC These Indo-European Greek-speaking invaders brought with them advanced techniques in pottery, metallurgy, and architecture. Mercantile contact with Crete advanced and strongly influenced their culture, and by 1600 BC, Mycenae had become a major center of the ancient world. The exact relationship of Mycenaean Greece to Crete between 1600 and 1400 BC is extremely complex, with both areas evidently competing for maritime control of the Mediterranean. After the violent destruction of Knossos c.1400 BC, Mycenae achieved supremacy, and much of the Minoan cultural tradition was transferred to the mainland. The Mycenaean commercial empire and consequent cultural influence lasted from 1400 to 1200 BC, when the invasion of the Dorians
ushered in a period of decline for Greece. Events from 1100 to 900 BC are extremely obscure, but by the 9th cent. BC the centers of wealth and population showed a decisive shift. Although the Mycenaeans had certain innovations of their own, they drew much of their cultural inspiration from the Minoans. The great Mycenaean cities—Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Thebes, Orchomenos—were noted for their heavy, complex fortifications and the massive, cyclopean quality of their masonry, while Minoan cities were totally unfortified. Mycenaean palaces were built around great halls called megara rather than around an open space as in Crete. Unlike the Cretans, the Mycenaeans were bearded and wore armor in battle. Their written language, preserved on numerous clay tablets from Pylos, Mycenae, and Knossos, appears to be a form of archaic Greek linguistically related to ancient Cypriot. The presence of this script, known as Linear B, at Knossos c.1500 BC indicates that Mycenaean Greeks had invaded and dominated Crete during the Late Minoan period before the final collapse c.1400 BC The works of Homer have been radically reevaluated since the archaeological discoveries of Mycenaean Greece. He is now considered to give admirable glimpses of the culture of the late Mycenaean civilization of the 12th cent. BC (see Achaeans
See W. Taylour, The Mycenaeans (1964) A. E. Samuel, The Mycenaeans in History (1966) G. E. Mylonas, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age (1966) W. A. McDonald, Progress into the Past (1967) J. Chadwick, The Decipherment of Linear B (2d ed. 1968).
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