To commemorate the camp of Boulogne. This formidable army was intended for the invasion of England. England also girded herself for battle, and here the matter ended. The Column perpetuates the memory of this threat. The Duke of York's Column, in London, at the top of the steps leading into St. James's Park. Erected in 1830-1833 in memory of Frederick, Duke of York, second son of George III., who died in 1827. It is of the Tuscan order, was designed by R. Wyatt, and is made of Aberdeenshire granite On the summit is a statue of the duke by Sir R. Westmacott.
The Column of July.
1832, Paris; made of bronze, and erected on the spot where the Bastille stood, to commemorate the revolution of July, 1830, when Charles X. abdicated. It is surmounted with a statue of Liberty standing on one foot.
In Trafalgar Square, London, was erected in 1843. The four lions, by Landseer, were added in 1867. The order of the Column is Corinthian, and the material Devonshire granite. The reliefs are (north side
) the battle of the Nile, where Nelson was wounded, (south side
) Nelson's death at the battle of Trafalgar, (east side
) the bombardment of Copenhagen; and (west side
) the battle of St. Vincent. The column is surmounted by a statue of Nelson by E. H. Baily.
Column of the Place Vendôme.
Paris, 1806-1810; made of bronze, and erected in honour of Napoleon I. The spiral outside represents in bas-relief the battles of Napoleon I., ending with Austerlitz in 1805. It is a facsimile of Trajan's Column.
In 1871 the statue of Napoleon, which surmounted this column, was hurled to the ground by the Communists, but in 1874 a statue of Liberty was substituted for the original one.
In Egypt, made of marble.
At Rome, made of marble, A.D. 114, by Apollodorus. It is 132 feet in height, and has inside a spiral staircase of 185 steps, and 40 windows to let in light. It was surmounted by a statue of the Emperor Trajan, but Sixtus V. supplanted the original statue by that of St. Peter The spiral outside represents in bas-reliefs the battles of the emperor.
Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894