News and Events of 1989
- US planes shoot down two Libyan fighters over international waters in Mediterranean (Jan. 4).
- Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini declares author Salman Rushdie's book The Satanic Verses offensive and sentences him to death (Feb. 14).
- Tens of thousands of Chinese students take over Beijing's Tiananmen Square in rally for democracy (April 19 et seq.). More than one million in Beijing demonstrate for democracy; chaos spreads across nation (mid-May et seq.). Thousands killed in Tiananmen Square as Chinese leaders take hard line toward demonstrators (June 4 et seq.).
- Mikhail S. Gorbachev named Soviet President (May 25).
- P. W. Botha quits as South Africa's President (Aug. 14).
- Deng Xiaoping resigns from China's leadership (Nov. 9).
- After 28 years, Berlin Wall is open to West (Nov. 11).
- Czech Parliament ends Communists' dominant role (Nov. 30).
- Romanian uprising overthrows Communist government (Dec. 15 et seq.); President Ceausescu and wife executed (Dec. 25).
- US troops invade Panama, seeking capture of General Manuel Noriega (Dec. 20).
US GDP (1998 dollars): $5,438.70 billion
Federal spending: $1143.17 billion
Federal debt: $2868.0 billion
Median Household Income
(current dollars): $28,906
Consumer Price Index: 124
Cost of a first-class stamp: $0.25
Super BowlSan Francisco d. Cincinnati (20-16)
World SeriesOakland A's d. SF Giants (4-0)
NBA ChampionshipDetroit Pistons d. LA Lakers (4-0)
Stanley CupCalgary d. Montreal (4-2)
WimbledonWomen: Steffi Graf d. M. Navratilova (6-2 6-7 6-1)
Men: Boris Becker d. S. Edberg (6-0 7-6 6-4)
Kentucky Derby ChampionSunday Silence
NCAA Basketball ChampionshipMichigan d. Seton Hall (80-79 OT)
NCAA Football ChampionsMiami-FL (11-1-0)
Fiction: Breathing Lessons, Anne Tyler
Music: Whispers Out of Time, Roger Reynolds
Drama: The Heidi Chronicles, Wendy Wasserstein
Oscars awarded in 1989
Academy Award, Best Picture: Rain Man, Mark Johnson, producer (United Artists)
Nobel Prize for Literature: Camilo José Cela (Spain)
1989 Emmy Awards
1989 Tony Awards
Grammys awarded in 1989
Record of the Year: "Don't Worry Be Happy," Bobby McFerrin
Album of the Year: Faith, George Michael (Columbia/CBS)
Song of the Year: "Don't Worry Be Happy," Bobby McFerrin, songwriter
Miss America: Gretchen Elizabeth Carlson (MN)More Entertainment Awards...
- Salman Rushdie's novel Satanic Verses is published and sparks immediate controversy. Islamic militants put a price on his head.
- America's beloved comedienne Lucille Ball dies at age 87.
- Visionary Jaron Lanier coins the term virtual reality and produces the equipment to experience it.
- Glory, Born on the Fourth of July, My Left Foot, Sex, Lies, and Videotape, Field of Dreams
- Oscar Hijuelos, The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
- Kazuo Ishiguro, The Remains of the Day
- Amy Tan, The Joy Luck Club
Nobel Prizes in Science
Chemistry: Thomas R. Cech and Sidney Altman (both US), for their discovery, independently, that RNA could actively aid chemical reactions in the cells
Physics: Norman F. Ramsey (US), for work leading to development of the atomic clock, and Hans G. Dehmelt (US) and Wolfgang Paul (Germany), for developing methods to isolate atoms and subatomic particles
Physiology or Medicine: J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus (both US), for their unifying theory of cancer development
- Human gene transfer developed by Steven Rosenberg, R. Michael Blaese, and W. French Anderson (US). Background: genetic engineering
- First World Wide Web server and browser developed by Tim Berners-Lee (England) while working at CERN.
- Peter Deutsch of McGill University who devlops Archie, an archive of FTP sites, the first effort to index the Internet. Another indexing system, WAIS (Wide Area Information Server), is developed by Brewster Kahle of Thinking Machines Corp. Background: Computers and Internet
- Voyager 2 speeds by Neptune after making startling discoveries about the planet and its moons (Aug. 29). Background: US Unstaffed Planetary and Lunar Programs