State abbreviation/Postal code: Md./MD
Governor: Martin O'Malley, D (to Jan. 2015)
Lieut. Gov.: Anthony Brown (to Jan. 2015)
Senators: Barbara A. Mikulski, D (to Jan. 2017); Ben Cardin, D (to Jan. 2013)
U.S. Representatives: 8
Historical biographies of Congressional members
Secretary of State: John P. McDonough, D (to Jan. 2015)
Treasurer: Nancy K. Kopp, D (elected by state legislature)
Atty. General: Douglas Ganser, D (to Jan. 2015)
Entered Union (rank): April 28, 1788 (7)
Present constitution adopted: 1867
Motto: Fatti maschii, parole femine (Manly deeds, womanly words)
|bird||Baltimore oriole (1947)|
|crustacean||Maryland blue crab (1989)|
|dinosaur||Astrodon johnstoni (1998)|
|dog||Chesapeake Bay retriever (1964)|
|flower||black-eyed susan (1918)|
|folk dance||square dance (1994)|
|fossil shell||ecphora gardnerae gardnerae (Wilson) (1994)|
|insect||Baltimore checkerspot butterfly (1973)|
|reptile||Diamondback terrapin (1994)|
|song||“Maryland! My Maryland!” (1939)|
|team sport||lacrosse (2004)|
|tree|| white oak (1941)|
Nicknames: Free State; Old Line State
Origin of name: In honor of Henrietta Maria (queen of Charles I of England)
10 largest cities (2010): Baltimore, 620,961; Frederick, 65,239; Rockville, 61,209; Gaithersburg, 59,933; Bowie, 54,727; Hagerstown, 39,662; Annapolis, 38,394; College Park, 30,413; Salisbury, 30,343; Greenbelt, 23,068
Land area: 9,774 sq mi. (25,315 sq km)
Geographic center: In Prince Georges Co., 41/2 mi. NW of Davidsonville
Number of counties: 23, and 1 independent city
Largest county by population and area: Montgomery, 971,777 (2010); Frederick, 663 sq mi.
State forests: 7 (136,907 ac.)
State parks: 40 (90,239 ac.)
2010 resident population: 5,773,552
2010 resident census population (rank): 5,773,552 (19). Male: 2,791,762 (48.3%); Female: 2,981,790 (51.7%). White: 3,359,284 (58.2%); Black: 1,700,298 (29.4%); American Indian: 20,420 (0.4%); Asian: 318,853 (5.5%); Other race: 206,832 (3.4%); Two or more races: 164,708 (2.9%); Hispanic/Latino: 470,632 (8.2%). 2010 percent population 18 and over: 4,420,588; 65 and over: 707,642; median age: 38.0.
See additional census data
See additional census data
In 1608, Capt. John Smith explored Chesapeake Bay. Charles I granted a royal charter for Maryland to Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore, in 1632, and English settlers, many of whom were Roman Catholic, landed on St. Clement's (now Blakistone) Island in 1634. Religious freedom, granted all Christians in the Toleration Act passed by the Maryland assembly in 1649, was ended by a Puritan revolt, 1654–1658.
From 1763 to 1767, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon surveyed Maryland's northern boundary line with Pennsylvania. In 1791, Maryland ceded land to form the District of Columbia.
In 1814, during the British attempt to capture Baltimore, the bombardment of Fort McHenry inspired Francis Scott Key to write the words to “The Star-Spangled Banner.” During the Civil War, Maryland was a slave state but remained in the Union. Consequently, Marylanders fought on both sides and many families were divided.
Maryland's Eastern Shore and Western Shore embrace the Chesapeake Bay, and the many estuaries and rivers create one of the longest waterfronts of any state. The Bay produces more seafood—oysters, crabs, clams, fin fish—than any comparable body of water. Since the 1950s, fish stocks have declined due to increased residential and commercial development in the area and the attendant amount of nutrients, sediment, and toxic substances polluting the water. In 2009, President Barack Obama signed the Chesapeake Bay Restoration and Protection Executive Order that called on the federal government "to restore and protect the nation's largest estuary and its watershed."
Important agricultural products are greenhouse and nursery products, chickens, dairy products, eggs, and soybeans. Stone, coal, sand, gravel, cement, and clay are the chief mineral products.
Manufacturing industries include food products, chemicals, computer and electronic products, transportation equipment, and primary metals. Baltimore, home of the Johns Hopkins University and Hospital, ranks as the nation's second port in foreign tonnage. The capital, Annapolis, is the site of the U.S. Naval Academy.
Among the popular attractions in Maryland are the Fort McHenry National Monument; Harpers Ferry and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Parks; Antietam National Battlefield; National Aquarium, USS Constellation, and Maryland Science Center at Baltimore's Inner Harbor; Historic St. Mary's City; Jefferson Patterson Historical Park and Museum at St. Leonard; U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis; Goddard Space Flight Center at Greenbelt; Assateague Island National Park Seashore; Ocean City beach resort; and Catoctin Mountain, Fort Frederick, and Piscataway parks.
In March 2012, Maryland passed legislation to legalize gay marriage, becoming the eighth state to do so.
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