| Share
 

Second Adhyâya

 

1. Prâna (breath) is Brahman, thus says Kaushitaki. Of this prâna, which is Brahman, the mind (manas) is the messenger, speech the housekeeper, the eye the guard, the ear the informant. He who knows mind as the messenger of prâna, which is Brahman, becomes possessed of the messenger. He who knows speech as the housekeeper, becomes possessed of the housekeeper. He who knows the eye as the guard, becomes possessed of the guard. He who knows the ear as the informant, becomes possessed of the informant.

Now to that prâna, which is Brahman, all these deities (mind, speech, eye, ear) bring an offering, though he asks not for it, and thus to him who knows this all creatures bring an offering, though he asks not for it. For him who knows this, there is this Upanishad (secret vow), “Beg not!” As a man who has begged through a village and got nothing sits down and says, “I shall never eat anything given by those people,” and as then those who formerly refused him press him (to accept their alms), thus is the rule for him who begs not, but the charitable will press him and say, “Let us give to thee.

2. Prâna (breath) is Brahman, thus says Paingya. And in that prâna, which is Brahman, the eye stands firm behind speech, the ear stands firm behind the eye, the mind stands firm behind the ear, and the spirit stands firm behind the mind. To that prâna, which is Brahman, all these deities bring an offering, though he asks not for it, and thus to him who knows this, all creatures bring an offering, though he asks not for it. For him who knows this, there is this Upanishad (secret vow), “Beg not!” As a man who has begged through a village and got nothing sits down and says, “I shall never eat anything given by those people,” and as then those who formerly refused him press him (to accept their alms), thus is the rule for him who begs not, but the charitable will press him and say, “Let us give to thee.

3. Now follows the attainment of the highest treasure (scil. prâna, spirit). If a man meditates on that highest treasure, let him on a full moon or a new moon, or in the bright fortnight, under an auspicious Nakshatra, at one of these proper times, bending his right knee, offer oblations of ghee with a ladle (sruva), after having placed the fire, swept the ground, strewn the sacred grass, and sprinkled water. Let him say: “The deity called Speech is the attainer, may it attain this for me from him (who possesses and can bestow what I wish for). Svaha to it!

The deity called prâna (breath) is the attainer, may it attain this for me from him. Svaha to it!

The deity called the eye is the attainer, may it attain this for me from him. Svaha to it!

The deity called the ear is the attainer, may it attain this for me from him. Svaha to it!

The deity called mind (manas) is the attainer of it, may it attain this for me from him. Svaha to it.

The deity called pragna (knowledge) is the attainer of it, may it attain this for me from him. Svaha to it!

Then having inhaled the smell of the smoke, and having rubbed his limbs with the ointment of ghee, walking on in silence, let him declare his wish, or let him send a messenger. He will surely obtain his wish.

4. Now follows the Daiva Smara, the desire to be accomplished by the gods. If a man desires to become dear to any man or woman, or to any men or women, then at one of the (fore-mentioned) proper times he offers, in exactly the same manner (as before), oblations of ghee, saying: “I offer thy speech in myself, I (this one here), Svaha.” “I offer thy ear in myself, I (this one here), Svaha.” “I offer thy mind in myself, I (this one here), Svaha.” “I offer thy pragna (knowledge) in myself, I (this one here), Svaha.” Then having inhaled the smell of the smoke, and having rubbed his limbs with the ointment of ghee, walking on in silence, let him try to come in contact or let him stand speaking in the wind, (so that the wind may carry his words to the person by whom he desires to be loved). Surely he becomes dear, and they think of him.

5. Now follows the restraint (samyamana) instituted by Pratardana (the son of Divodasa): they call it the inner Agni-hotra. So long as a man speaks, he cannot breathe, he offers all the while his prâna (breath) in his speech. And so long as a man breathes, he cannot speak, he offers all the while his speech in his breath. These two endless and immortal oblations he offers always, whether waking or sleeping. Whatever other oblations there are (those, e. g. of the ordinary Agnihotra, consisting of milk and other things), they have an end, for they consist of works (which, like all works, have an end). The ancients, knowing this (the best Agnihotra), did not offer the (ordinary) Agnihotra.

6. Uktha is Brahman, thus said Sushkabhringara. Let him meditate on it (the uktha) as the same with the Rik, and all beings will praise him as the best. Let him meditate on it as the same with the Yagus, and all beings will join before him as the best. Let him meditate on it as the same with the Saman, and all beings will bow before him as the best. Let him meditate on it as the same with might, let him meditate on it as the same with glory, let him meditate on it as the same with splendour. For as the bow is among weapons the mightiest, the most glorious, the most splendid, thus is he who knows this among all beings the mightiest, the most glorious, the most splendid. The Adhvaryu conceives the fire of the altar, which is used for the sacrifice, to be himself. In it he (the Adhvaryu) weaves the Yagus portion of the sacrifice. And in the Yagus portion the Hotri weaves the Rik portion of the sacrifice. And in the Rik portion the Udgatri weaves the Saman portion of the sacrifice. He (the Adhvaryu or prâna) is the self of the threefold knowledge; he indeed is the self of it (of prâna). He who knows this is the self of it (becomes prâna).

7. Next follow the three kinds of meditation of the all-conquering (sarvagit) Kaushitaki. The all-conquering Kaushitaki adores the sun when rising, having put on the sacrificial cord, having brought water, and having thrice sprinkled the water-cup, saying: “Thou art the deliverer, deliver me from sin.” In the same manner he adores the sun when in the zenith, saying: “Thou art the highest deliverer, deliver me highly from sin.” In the same manner he adores the sun when setting, saying: “Thou art the full deliverer, deliver me fully from sin.” Thus he fully removes whatever sin he committed by day and by night. And in the same manner he who knows this, likewise adores the sun, and fully removes whatever sin be committed by day and by night.

8. Then (secondly) let him worship every month (in the year) at the time of the new moon, the moon as it is seen in the west in the same manner (as before described with regard to the sun), or let him send forth his speech toward the moon with two green blades of grass, saying: “O thou who art mistress of immortal joy, through that gentle heart of mine which abides in the moon, may I never weep for misfortune concerning my children.

The children of him (who thus adores the moon) do not indeed die before him. Thus it is with a man to whom a son is already born.

Now for one to whom no son is born as yet. He mutters the three Rik verses. “Increase, O Soma! may vigour come to thee” (Rv. I, 91, 16; IX, 31, 4).

May milk, may food go to thee” (Rv. I, 91, 18); “That ray which the Adityas gladden.

Having muttered these three Rik verses, he says: “Do not increase by our breath (prâna), by our offspring, by our cattle; he who hates us and whom we hate, increase by his breath, by his offspring, by his cattle. Thus I turn the turn of the god, I return the turn of Aditya.” After these words, having raised the right arm (toward Soma), he lets it go again.

9. Then (thirdly) let him worship on the day of the full moon the moon as it is seen in the east in the same manner, saying: “Thou art Soma, the king, the wise, the five-mouthed, the lord of creatures. The Brahmana is one of thy mouths; with that mouth thou eatest the kings (Kshatriyas); make me an eater of food by that mouth! The king is one of thy mouths; with that mouth thou eatest the people (Vaisyas); make me an eater of food by that mouth! The hawk is one of thy mouths; with that mouth thou eatest the birds; make me an eater of food by that mouth! Fire is one of thy mouths; with that mouth thou eatest this world; make me an eater of food by that mouth! In thee there is the fifth mouth; with that mouth thou eatest all beings; make me an eater of food by that mouth! Do not decrease by our life, by our offspring, by our cattle; he who hates us and whom we hate, decrease by his life, by his offspring, by his cattle. Thus I turn the turn of the god, I return the turn of Aditya.” After these words, having raised the right arm, he lets it go again.

10. Next (having addressed these prayers to Soma) when being with his wife, let him stroke her heart, saying: “O fair one, who hast obtained immortal joy by that which has entered thy heart through Pragâpati, mayest thou never fall into sorrow about thy children.” Her children then do not die before her.

11. Next, if a man has been absent and returns home, let him smell (kiss) his son's head, saying: “Thou springest from every limb, thou art born from the heart, thou, my son, art my self indeed, live thou a hundred harvests.” He gives him his name, saying: “Be thou a stone, be thou an axe, be thou solid gold; thou, my son, art light indeed, live thou a hundred harvests.” He pronounces his name. Then he embraces him, saying: “As Pragâpati (the lord of creatures) embraced his creatures for their welfare, thus I embrace thee,” (pronouncing his name.) Then he mutters into his right ear, saying: “O thou, quick Maghavan, give to him” (Rv. III, 36, 103). “O Indra, bestow the best wishes” (Rv. II, 21, 6), thus he whispers into his left ear. Let him then thrice smell (kiss) his head, saying: “Do not cut off (the line of our race), do not suffer. Live a hundred harvests of life; I kiss thy head, O son, with thy name.” He then thrice makes a lowing sound over his head, saying: “I low over thee with the lowing sound of cows.

12. Next follows the Daiva Parimara, the dying around of the gods (the absorption of the two classes of gods, mentioned before, into prâna or Brahman). This Brahman shines forth indeed when the fire burns, and it dies when it burns not. Its splendour goes to the sun alone, the life (prâna, the moving principle) to the air.

This Brahman shines forth indeed when the sun is seen, and it dies when it is not seen. Its splendour goes to the moon alone, the life (prâna) to the air.

This Brahman shines forth indeed when the moon is seen, and it dies when it is not seen. Its splendour goes to the lightning alone, its life (prâna) to the air.

This Brahman shines forth indeed when the lightning flashes, and it dies when it flashes not. Its splendour goes to the air, and the life (prâna) to the air.

Thus all these deities (i.e. fire, sun, moon, lightning), having entered the air, though dead, do not vanish; and out of the very air they rise again. So much with reference to the deities (mythological). Now then with reference to the body (physiological).

13. This Brahman shines forth indeed when one speaks with speech, and it dies when one does not speak. His splendour goes to the eye alone, the life (prâna) to breath (prâna).

This Brahman shines forth indeed when one sees with the eye, and it dies when one does not see. Its splendour goes to the ear alone, the life (prâna) to breath (prâna).

This Brahman shines forth indeed when one hears with the ear, and it dies when one does not hear. Its splendour goes to the mind alone, the life (prâna) to breath (prâna).

This Brahman shines forth indeed when one thinks with the mind, and it dies when one does not think. Its splendour goes to the breath (prâna) alone, and the life (prâna) to breath (prâna).

Thus all these deities (the senses, &c.), having entered breath or life (prâna) alone, though dead, do not vanish; and out of very breath (prâna) they rise again. And if two mountains, the southern and northern, were to move forward trying to crush him who knows this, they would not crush him. But those who hate him and those whom he hates, they die around him.

14. Next follows the Nihsreyasadana (the accepting of the pre-eminence of prâna (breath or life) by the other gods). The deities (speech, eye, ear, mind), contending with each for who was the best, went out of this body, and the body lay without. breathing, withered, like a log of wood. Then speech went into it, but speaking by speech, it lay still. Then the eye went into it, but speaking by speech, and seeing by the eye, it lay still. Then the ear went into it, but speaking by speech, seeing by the eye, hearing by the ear, it lay still. Then mind went into it, but speaking by speech, seeing by the eye, hearing by the ear, thinking by the mind, it lay still. Then breath (prâna, life) went into it, and thence it rose at once. All these deities, having recognised the pre-eminence in prâna, and having comprehended prâna alone as the conscious self (pragnatman went out of this body with all these (five different kinds of prâna), and resting in the air (knowing that prâna had entered the air), and merged in the ether (akasa), they went to heaven. And in the same manner he who knows this, having recognised the pre-eminence in prâna, and having comprehended prâna alone as the conscious self (pragnatman), goes out of this body with all these (does no longer believe in this body), and resting in the air, and merged in the ether, he goes to heaven, he goes to where those gods (speech, &c.) are. And having reached this he, who knows this, becomes immortal with that immortality which those gods enjoy.

15. Next follows the father's tradition to the son, and thus they explain it. The father, when going to depart, calls his son, after having strewn the house with fresh grass, and having laid the sacrificial fire, and having placed near it a pot of water with a jug (full of rice), himself covered with a new cloth, and dressed in white. He places himself above his son, touching his organs with his own organs, or he may deliver the tradition to him while he sits before him. Then he delivers it to him. The father says:

Let me place my speech in thee.” The son says:

I take thy speech in me.” The father says: “Let me place my scent (prâna) in thee.” The son says: “I take thy scent in me.” The father says: “Let me place my eye in thee.” The son says: “I take thy eye in me.” The father says: “Let me place my ear in thee.” The son says: “I take thy ear in me.” The father says: “Let me place my tastes of food in thee.” The son says: “I take thy tastes of food in me.” The father says: “Let me place my actions in thee.” The son says: “I take thy actions in me.” The father says: “Let me place my pleasure and pain in thee.” The son says: “I take thy pleasure and pain in me.” The father says “Let me place happiness, joy, and offspring in thee.” The son says: “I take thy happiness, joy, and offspring in me.” The father says: “Let me place my walking in thee.” The son says: “I take thy walking in me.” The father says: “Let me place my mind in thee.” The son says: “I take thy mind in me.” The father says: “Let me place my knowledge (pragna) in thee.” The son says: “I take thy knowledge in me.” But if the father is very ill, he may say shortly: “Let me place my spirits (prânas) in thee,” and the son: “I take thy spirits in me.

Then the son walks round his father keeping his right side towards him, and goes away. The father calls after him: “May fame, glory of countenance, and honour always follow thee.” Then the other looks back over his left shoulder, covering himself with his hand or the hem of his garment, saying: “Obtain the heavenly worlds (svarga) and all desires.

If the father recovers, let him be under the authority of his son, or let him wander about (as an ascetic). But if he departs, then let them despatch him, as he ought to be despatched, yea, as he ought to be despatched.


24 X 7

Private Tutor

Click Here for Details
24 x 7 Tutor Availability
Unlimited Online Tutoring
1-on-1 Tutoring