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Fourth Adhyâya

First Brahmana

1.When Ganaka Vaideha was sitting (to give audience), Yagnavalkya approached, and Ganaka Vaideha said: “Yagnavalkya, for what object did you come, wishing for cattle, or for subtle questions?

Yagnavalkya replied: “For both, Your Majesty;

2. “Let us hear what anybody may have told you.

Ganaka Vaideha replied: “Gitvan Sailini told me that speech (vak) is Brahman.

Yagnavalkya said: “As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Sailini tell you, that speech is Brahman; for what is the use of a dumb person? But did he tell you the body (ayatana) and the resting-place (pratishtha) of that Brahman?

Ganaka Vaideha said: “He did not tell me.

Yagnavalkya said: “Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “Then tell me, Yagnavalkya.

Yagnavalkya said: “The tongue is its body, ether its place, and one should worship it as knowledge.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “What is the nature of that knowledge?

Yagnavalkya replied: “Your Majesty, speech itself (is knowledge). For through speech, Your Majesty, a friend is known (to be a friend), and likewise the Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, Sama-veda, the Atharvangirasas, the Itihasa (tradition), Purana-vidya (knowledge of the past), the Upanishads, Slokas (verses), Sutras (rules), Anuvyakhyanas and Vyakhyanas (commentaries, &c.); what is sacrificed, what is poured out, what is (to be) eaten and drunk, this world and the other world, and all creatures. By speech alone,Your Majesty, Brahman is known, speech indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Speech does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.

Yagnavalkya said: “My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.

3. Yagnavalkya said: “Let us hear what anybody may have told you.

Ganaka Vaideha replied: “Udanka Saulbayana told me that life (prâna) is Brahman.

Yagnavalkya said: “As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Udanka Saulbayana tell you that life is Brahman; for what is the use of a person without life? But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of that Brahman?

Ganaka Vaideha said: “He did not tell me.

Yagnavalkya said: “Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.

Ganaka, Vaideha said: “Then tell me, Yagnavalkya.

Yagnavalkya said: “Breath is its body, ether its place, and one should worship it as what is dear.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “What is the nature of that which is dear?

Yagnavalkya replied: “Your Majesty, life itself (is that which is dear); because for the sake of life, Your Majesty, a man sacrifices even for him who is unworthy of sacrifice, he accepts presents from him who is not worthy to bestow presents, nay, he goes to a country, even when there is fear of being hurt, for the sake of life. Life, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Life does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.

Yagnavalkya said: “My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.

4. Yagnavalkya said: “Let us hear what anybody may have told you.

Ganaka Vaideha replied: “Barku Varshna told me that sight (kakshus) is Brahman.

Yagnavalkya said: “As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Barku Varshna tell you that sight is Brahman; for what is the use of a person who cannot see? But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of that Brahman?

Ganaka Vaideha said: “He did not tell me.

Yagnavalkya said: “Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “Then tell me, Yagnavalkya.

Yagnavalkya said: “The eye is its body, ether its place, and one should worship it as what is true.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “What is the nature of that which is true?

Yagnavalkya replied: “Your Majesty, sight itself (is that which is true); for if they say to a man who sees with his eye, ‘Didst thou see?’ and he says, ‘I saw,’ then it is true. Sight, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Sight does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.

Yagnavalkya said: “My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.

5. Yagnavalkya said: “Let us hear what anybody may have told you.

Ganaka Vaideha replied: “Gardabhivibhtta Bharadvâga told me that hearing (srotra) is Brahman.

Yagnavalkya said: “As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Gardabhivibhita Bharadvâga tell you that hearing is Brahman; for what is the use of a person who cannot hear? But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of that Brahman?

Ganaka Vaideha said: “He did not tell me.

Yagnavalkya said: “Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “Then tell me, Yagnavalkya.

Yagnavalkya said: “The ear is its body, ether its place, and we should worship it as what is endless.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “What is the nature of that which is endless?

Yagnavalkya replied: “Your Majesty, space (disah) itself (is that which is endless), and therefore to whatever space (quarter) he goes, he never comes to the end of it. For space is endless. Space indeed, O King, is hearing, and hearing indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Hearing does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become god, he goes to the gods.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “I shall give you (for this) thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.

Yagnavalkya said: “My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.

6. Yagnavalkya said: “Let us hear what anybody may have told you.

Ganaka Vaideha replied: “Satyakama Gabala told me that mind (manas) is Brahman.

Yagnavalkya said: “As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Satyakama Gabala tell you that mind is Brahman; for what is the use of a person without mind? But did he tell you the body and the resting-place of that Brahman?

Ganaka Vaideha said: “He did not tell me.

Yagnavalkya said: “Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “Then tell me, Yagnavalkya.

Yagnavalkya said: “Mind itself is its body, ether its place, and we should worship it as bliss.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “What is the nature of bliss?

Yagnavalkya replied: “Your Majesty, mind itself; for with the mind does a man desire a woman, and a like son is born of her, and he is bliss. Mind indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. Mind does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.

Yagnavalkya said: “My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.

7. Yagnavalkya said: “Let us hear what anybody may have told you.

Ganaka Vaideha replied: “Vidagdha Sakalya told me that the heart (hridaya) is Brahman.

Yagnavalkya said: “As one who had (the benefit of a good) father, mother, and teacher might tell, so did Vidagdha Sakalya tell you that the heart is Brahman; for what is the use of a person without a heart? But did he tell you the body and the resting place of that Brahman?

Ganaka Vaideha said: “He did not tell me.

Yagnavalkya said: “Your Majesty, this (Brahman) stands on one leg only.

GanakaVaideha said: “Then tell me, Yagnavalkya.

Yagnavalkya said: “The heart itself is its body, ether its place, and we should worship it as certainty (sthiti).

Ganaka Vaideha said: “What is the nature of certainty?

Yagnavalkya replied: “Your Majesty, the heart itself; for the heart indeed, O King, is the body of all things, the heart is the restingmplace of all things, for in the heart, O King, all things rest. The heart indeed, O King, is the Highest Brahman. The heart does not desert him who worships that (Brahman) with such knowledge, all creatures approach him, and having become a god, he goes to the gods.

Ganaka Vaideha said: “I shall give you (for this) a thousand cows with a bull as big as an elephant.

Yagnavalkya said: “My father was of opinion that one should not accept a reward without having fully instructed a pupil.

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