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Third Brahmana

I. There were two kinds of descendants of Pragâpati, the Devas and the Asuras. Now the Devas were indeed the younger, the Asuras the elder ones. The Devas, who were struggling in these worlds, said: “Well, let us overcome the Asuras at the sacrifices (the Gyotishtoma) by means of the udgitha.

2. They said to speech (Vak): “Do thou sing out for us (the udgitha).” “Yes,” said speech, and sang (the udgitha). Whatever delight there is in speech, that she obtained for the Devas by singing (the three pavamanas); but that she pronounced well (in the other nine pavamanas), that was for herself. The Asuras knew: “Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.” They therefore rushed at the singer and pierced her with evil. That evil which consists in saying what is bad, that is that evil.

3. Then they (the Devas) said to breath (scent): “Do thou sing out for us.” “Yes,” said breath, and sang. Whatever delight there is in breath (smell), that he obtained for the Devas by singing; but that he smelled well, that was for himself. The Asuras knew: “Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.” They therefore rushed at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That evil which consists in smelling what is bad, that is that evil.

4. Then they said to the eye: “Do thou sing out for us.” “Yes,” said the eye, and sang. Whatever delight there is in the eye, that he obtained for the Devas by singing; but that he saw well, that was for himself. The Asuras knew: “Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.” They therefore rushed at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That evil which consists in seeing what is bad, that is that evil.

5. Then they said to the ear: “Do thou sing out for us.” “Yes,” said the ear, and sang. Whatever delight there is in the ear, that he obtained for the Devas by singing; but that he heard well, that was for himself. The Asuras knew: “Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.” They therefore rushed at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That evil which consists in hearing what is bad, that is that evil.

6. Then they said to the mind: “Do thou sing out for us.” “Yes,” said the mind, and sang. Whatever delight there is in the mind, that he obtained for the Devas by singing; but that he thought well, that was for himself. The Asuras knew: “Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.” They therefore rushed at the singer, and pierced him with evil. That evil which consists in thinking what is bad, that is that evil.

Thus they overwhelmed these deities with evils, thus they pierced them with evil.

7. Then they said to the breath in the mouth I: “Do thou sing for us.” “Yes,” said the breath, and sang. The Asuras knew: “Verily, through this singer they will overcome us.” They therefore rushed at him and pierced him with evil. Now as a ball of earth will be scattered when hitting a stone, thus they perished, scattered in all directions. Hence the Devas rose, the Asuras fell. He who knows this, rises by his self, and the enemy who hates him falls.

8. Then they (the Devas) said: “Where was he then who thus stuck to us?” It was (the breath) within the mouth (asye 'ntar), and therefore called Ayasya; he was the sap (rasa) of the limbs (anga), and therefore called Angirasa.

9. That deity was called Dyr, because Death was far (duran) from it. From him who knows this, Death is far off.

10. That deity, after having taken away the evil of those deities, viz. death, sent it to where the end of the quarters of the earth is. There he deposited their sins. Therefore let no one go to a man, let no one go to the end (of the quarters of the earth), that he may not meet there with evil, with death.

11. That deity, after having taken away the evil of those deities, viz. death, carried them beyond death.

12. He carried speech across first. When speech had become freed from death, it became (what it had been before) Agni (fire). That Agni, after having stepped beyond death, shines.

13. Then he carried breath (scent) across. When breath had become freed from death, it became vayu (air). That vayu, after having stepped beyond death, blows.

14. Then he carried the eye across. When the eye had become freed from death, it became Aditya (the sun). That Aditya, after having stepped beyond death, burns.

15. Then he carried the ear across. When the ear had become freed from death, it became the quarters (space). These are our quarters (space), which have stepped beyond death.

16. Then he carried the mind across. When the mind had become freed from death, it became the moon (Kandramas). That moon, after having stepped beyond death, shines. Thus does that deity carry him, who knows this, across death.

17. Then breath (vital), by singing, obtained for himself eatable food. For whatever food is eaten, is eaten by breath alone, and in it breath rests.

The Devas said: “Verily, thus far, whatever food there is, thou hast by singing acquired it for thyself. Now therefore give us a share in that food.” He said: “You there, enter into me.” They said Yes, and entered all into him. Therefore whatever food is eaten by breath, by it the other senses are satisfied.

18. If a man knows this, then his own relations come to him in the same manner; he becomes their supporter, their chief leader, their strong ruler. And if ever any one tries to oppose one who is possessed of such knowledge among his own relatives, then he will not be able to support his own belongings. But he who follows the man who is possessed of such knowledge, and who with his permission wishes to support those whom he has to support, he indeed will be able to support his own belongings.

19. He was called Ayasya Angirasa, for he is the sap (rasa) of the limbs (anga). Verily, breath is the sap of the limbs. Yes, breath is the sap of the limbs. Therefore from whatever limb breath goes away, that limb withers, for breath verily is the sap of the limbs.

20. He (breath) is also Brihaspati, for speech is Brihatî (Rig-veda), and he is her lord; therefore he is Brihaspati.

21. He (breath) is also Brahmaxaspati, for speech is Brahman (Yagur-veda), and he is her lord; therefore he is Brahmanaspati.

He (breath) is also saman (the Udgitha), for speech is Saman (sama-veda), and that is both speech (sa) and breath (ama). This is why saman is called saman.

2 2. Or because he is equal (sama) to a grub, equal

to a gnat, equal to an elephant, equal to these three worlds, nay, equal to this universe, therefore he is Saman. He who thus knows this saman, obtains union and oneness with saman.

23. He (breath) is Udgitha. Breath verily is Ut, for by breath this universe is upheld (uttabdha); and speech is Githa, song. And because he is ut and githa, therefore he (breath) is Udgitha.

24. And thus Brahmadatta, Kaikitaneya (the grandson of Kikitana), while taking Soma (ragan), said: “May this Soma strike my head off, if Ayasya Ang,irasa sang another Udgitha than this. He sang it indeed as speech and breath.

25. He who knows what is the property of this saman, obtains property. Now verily its property is tone only. Therefore let a priest, who is going to perform the sacrificial work of a Sama-singer, desire that his voice may have a good tone, and let him perform the sacrifice with a voice that is in good tone. Therefore people (who want a priest) for a sacrifice, look out for one who possesses a good voice, as for one who possesses property. He who thus knows what is the property of that saman, obtains property.

26. He who knows what is the gold of that Saman, obtains gold. Now verily its gold is tone only. He who thus knows what is the gold of that saman, obtains gold.

27. He who knows what is the support of that saman, he is supported. Now verily its support is speech only. For, as supported in speech, that breath is sung as that saman. Some say the support is in food.

Next follows the Abhyaroha (the ascension) of the Pavamana verses. Verily the Prastotri begins to sing the saman, and when he begins, then let him (the sacrificer) recite these (three Yagus-verses):

Lead me from the unreal to the real! Lead me from darkness to light! Lead me from death to immortality!

Now when he says, “Lead me from the unreal to the real,” the unreal is verily death, the real immortality. He therefore says, “Lead me from death to immortality, make me immortal.

When he says, “Lead me from darkness to light,” darkness is verily death, light immortality. He therefore says, “Lead me from death to immortality, make me immortal.

When he says, “Lead me from death to immortality,” there is nothing there, as it were, hidden (obscure, requiring explanation).

28. Next come the other Stotras with which the priest may obtain food for himself by singing them. Therefore let the sacrificer, while these Stotras are being sung, ask for a boon, whatever desire he may desire. An Udgatri priest who knows this obtains by his singing whatever desire he may desire either for himself or for the sacrificer. This (knowledge) indeed is called the conqueror of the worlds. He who thus knows this Saman, for him there is no fear of his not being admitted to the worlds.


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