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Sura VI — Cattle

by Rev. G. Margoliouth, M.A.

MECCA — 165 Verses

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

PRAISE be to God, who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, and ordained the darkness and the light! Yet unto their Lord do the infidels give peers!

He it is who created you of clay then decreed the term of your life: and with Him is another prefixed term for the resurrection. Yet have ye doubts thereof!

And He is God in the Heavens and on the Earth! He knoweth your secrets and your disclosures! and He knoweth what ye deserve.

Never did one single sign from among the signs of their Lord come to them, but they turned away from it;

And now, after it hath reached them, have they treated the truth itself as a lie. But in the end, a message as to that which they have mocked, shall reach them.

See they not how many generations we have destroyed before them? We had settled them on the earth as we have not settled you, and we sent down the very heavens upon them in copious rains, and we made the rivers to flow beneath their feet: yet we destroyed them in their sins, and raised up other generations to succeed them.

And had we sent down to thee a Book written on parchment, and they had touched it with their hands, the infidels had surely said, "This is nought but plain sorcery."

They say, too, "Unless an angel be sent down to him. . . ." But if we had sent down an angel, their judgment would have come on them at once,[804] and they would have had no respite:

And if we had appointed an angel, we should certainly have appointed one in the form of a man, and we should have clothed him before them in garments like their own.[805]

Moreover, apostles before thee have been laughed to scorn: but that which they laughed to scorn encompassed the mockers among them!

SAY: Go through the land: then see what hath been the end of those who treated them as liars.

SAY: Whose is all that is in the Heavens and the Earth?

SAY: God's. He had imposed mercy on Himself as a law. He will surely assemble you on the Resurrection day; there is no doubt of it. They who are the authors of their own ruin, are they who will not believe.

His, whatsoever hath its dwelling in the night and in the day! and He, the Hearing, the Knowing!

SAY: Other than God shall I take as Lord, maker of the Heavens and of the Earth, who nourisheth all, and of none is nourished? SAY: Verily, I am bidden to be the first of those who surrender them to God (profess Islam): and, be not thou of those who join gods with God.

SAY: Verily, I fear, should I rebel against my Lord, the punishment of the great day.

From whomsoever it shall be averted on that day, He will have had mercy on him: and this will be the manifest bliss.

If God touch thee with trouble, none can take it off but He: and if He visit thee with good—it is He whose power is over all things;

And He is the Supreme over his servants; and He is the Wise, the Cognisant!

SAY: What thing is weightiest in bearing witness? SAY: God is witness between me and you; and this Koran hath been revealed to me that I should warn you by it, and all whom it shall reach. What! will ye really bear witness that there are other gods with God? SAY: I bear no such witness. SAY: Verily, He is one God, and truly am guiltless of what ye join with Him.

They to whom we have given the Book, recognise him (Muhammad) as they do their own children:[806] but they who are the authors of their own perdition are they who will not believe.

And who more wicked than he who inventeth a lie concerning God, or who treateth our signs as lies? Verily those wicked ones shall not prosper.[807]

And on "the Day" we will gather them all together: then will we say to those who joined gods with God, "Where are those companion-gods of yours, as ye supposed them?"

Then shall they find no other excuse than to say, "By God our Lord! we joined not companions with Him."

Behold! how they lie against themselves—and the gods of their own inventing desert them!

Some among them hearken unto thee: but we have cast veils over their hearts that they should not understand the Koran, and a weight into their ears: and though they should see all kinds of signs, they will refuse all faith in them, until when they come to thee, to dispute with thee, the infidels say, "Verily, this is nothing but fables of the ancients."

And they will forbid it, and depart from it:—but they are only the authors of their own perdition, and know it not.

If thou couldst see when they shall be set over the fire, and shall say, "Oh! would we might be sent back! we would not treat the signs of our Lord as lies! we would be of the believers."

Aye! that hath become clear[808] to them which they before concealed; but though they should return, they would surely go back to that which was forbidden them; for they are surely liars!

And they say, "There is no other than our life in this world, neither shall we be raised again."

But if thou couldest see when they shall be set before their Lord! He shall say to them, "Is not this it[809] in truth?" They shall say, "Yea, by our Lord!" "Taste then," saith He, "the torment, for that ye believed not!"

Lost are they who deny the meeting with God until "the Hour" cometh suddenly upon them! Then will they say, "Oh, our sighs for past negligence of this hour!" and they shall bear their burdens on their back! Will not that be evil with which they shall be burdened?

The life in this world is but a play and pastime; and better surely for men of godly fear will be the future mansion! Will ye not then comprehend?

Now know we that what they speak vexeth thee:[810] But it is not merely thee whom they charge with falsehood, but the ungodly gainsay the signs of God.

Before thee have apostles already been charged with falsehood: but they bore the charge and the wrong with constancy, till our help came to them;—for none can change the words of God. But this history of His Sent Ones hath already reached thee.

But if their estrangement be grievous to thee, and if thou art able to seek out an opening into the earth or a ladder into Heaven,[811] that thou mightest bring them a sign. . . . Yes! But if God pleased, He would surely bring them, one and all, to the guidance! therefore be not thou one of the ignorant.

To those only who shall lend an ear will He make answer: as for the dead, God will raise them up; then unto Him shall they return.

They say, "Unless a sign be sent down to him from his Lord. . . ." SAY: Verily, God is able to send down a sign; but the greater part of them know it not.

No kind of beast is there on earth nor fowl that flieth with its wings, but is a folk[812] like you: nothing have we passed over in the Book:[813] then unto their Lord shall they be gathered.

They who gainsay our signs are deaf, and dumb, in darkness: God will mislead whom He pleaseth, and whom He pleaseth He will place upon the straight path.

SAY: What think ye? If the punishment of God were to come upon you, or "the Hour" were to come upon you, will ye cry to any other than God? Tell me, if ye speak the truth?

Yes! to Him will ye cry: and if He please He will deliver you from that ye shall cry to Him to avert, and ye shall forget the partners ye joined with Him.

Already have we sent apostles to nations that were before thee, and we laid hold on them with troubles and with straits in order that they might humble themselves:

Yet, when our trouble came upon them, they did not humble themselves; but their hearts were hardened, and Satan pre-arranged for them[814] their course of conduct.

And when they had forgotten their warnings, we set open to them the gates of all things, until, as they were rejoicing in our gifts, we suddenly laid hold upon them, and lo! they were plunged into despair,

And the uttermost part of that impious people was cut off. All praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds!

SAY: What think ye? If God should take away your hearing and your sight and set a seal upon your hearts, what god beside God would restore them to you? See! how we vary our wondrous verses (signs)! yet they turn away from them!

SAY: What think ye? If the punishment of God come on you suddenly or foreseen,[815] shall any perish except the impious?

We send not our Sent Ones but as heralds of good news and warners; and whoso shall believe and amend, on them shall come no fear, neither shall they be sorrowful:

But whoso shall charge our signs with falsehood, on them shall fall a punishment for their wicked doings.

SAY: I say not to you, "In my possession are the treasures of God;" neither say I, "I know things secret;" neither do I say to you, "Verily, I am an angel:" Only what is revealed to me do I follow. SAY: Shall the blind and the seeing be esteemed alike? Will ye not then reflect?

And warn those who dread their being gathered to their Lord, that patron or intercessor they shall have none but Him,—to the intent that they may fear Him!

And thrust not thou away those who cry to their Lord at morn and even, craving to behold his face. It is not for thee in anything to judge of their motives, nor for them in anything to judge of thee. If thou thrust them away thou wilt be of the doers of wrong.

Thus have we made proof of some of them by others, that they may say, "Are these they among us to whom God hath been gracious?" Doth not God best know the thankful?

And when they who believe in our signs come to thee, SAY: Peace be upon you! Your Lord hath laid down for himself a law of mercy; so that if any one of you commit a fault through ignorance, and afterwards turn and amend, He surely will be Gracious, Merciful.

Thus have we distinctly set forth our signs, that the way of the wicked might be made known.

SAY: Forbidden am I to worship those whom ye call on beside God. SAY: I will not follow your wishes; for then should I have gone astray, and should not be of the guided.

SAY: I act upon proofs from my Lord, but ye treat them as falsehoods. That punishment which ye desire to be hastened is not in my power; judgment is with God only: He will declare the truth; and He is the best settler of disputes.

SAY: If what ye would hasten on, were in my power, the matter between me and you had been decided: but God best knoweth the impious.

And with Him are the keys[816] of the secret things; none knoweth them but He: He knoweth whatever is on the land and in the sea; and no leaf falleth but He knoweth it; neither is there a grain in the darknesses of the earth, nor a thing green or sere, but it is noted in a distinct writing.[817]

It is He who taketh your souls at night,[818] and knoweth what ye have merited in the day: then he awaketh you therein, that the set life-term may be fulfilled: then unto Him shall ye return; and then shall be declare to you that which ye have wrought.

Supreme over his servants, He sendeth forth guardians who watch over you, until, when death overtaketh any one of you, our messengers take his soul, and fail not:

Then are they returned to God their Lord, the True. Is not judgment His? Swiftest He, of those who take account!

SAY: Who rescueth you from the darkness of the land and of the sea, when humbly and secretly ye cry to Him—"If thou rescue us from this, we will surely be of the thankful?"

SAY: God rescueth you from them, and from every strait: yet afterwards ye give Him companions!

SAY: It is He who hath power to send on you a punishment from above you, or from beneath your feet, or to clothe you with discord,[819] and to make some of you to taste the violence of others. See how variously we handle the wondrous verses, that haply they may become wise!

But thy people hath accused the Koran of falsehood, though it be the truth: SAY: I am not in charge of you: To every prophecy is its set time, and bye-and-bye ye shall know it!

And when thou seest those who busy themselves with cavilling at our signs, withdraw from them till they busy themselves in some other subject: and if Satan cause thee to forget this, sit not, after recollection, with the ungodly people:[820]

Not that they who fear God are to pass any judgment upon them, but the object of recollection is that they may continue to fear Him.

And quit those who make their religion a sport and a pastime, and whom this present life hath deceived: warn them hereby that every soul will be consigned to doom for its own works: patron or intercessor, beside God, shall it have none: and could it compensate with fullest compensation, it would not be accepted from it. They who for their deeds shall be consigned to doom—for them are draughts of boiling water, and a grievous torment; for that they believed not!

SAY: Shall we, beside God, call upon those who can neither help nor hurt us? Shall we turn upon our heel after that God hath guided us? Like some bewildered man whom the Satans have spell-bound in the desert, though his companions call him to the true guidance, with, "Come to us!" SAY: Verily, guidance from God, that is the true guidance; and we are commanded to surrender ourselves to the Lord of the Worlds.

And observe ye the times of prayer, and fear ye God: for it is He to whom ye shall be gathered.

And it is He who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, in truth, and when He saith to a thing, "Be," it is.

His word is the truth: and His the kingdom, on the day when there shall be a blast on the trumpet: He knoweth alike the unseen and the seen: and He is the Wise, the Cognisant.

And remember when Abraham said to his father Azar,[821] Takest thou images as gods? Verily, I see that thou and thy people are in manifest error.

And thus did we shew Abraham the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth,[822] that he might be stablished in knowledge.

And when the night overshadowed him, he beheld a star. "This," said he, "is my Lord:" but when it set, he said, "I love not gods which set."

And when he beheld the moon uprising, "This," said he, "is my Lord:" but when it set, he said, "Surely, if my Lord guide me not, I shall surely be of those who go astray."

And when he beheld the sun uprise, he said, "This is my Lord; this is greatest." But when it set, he said, "O my people! I share not with you the guilt of joining gods with God;

I turn my face to him who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, following the right religion:[823] I am not one of those who add gods to God."

And his people disputed with him.—He said: "Dispute ye with me about God, when He hath guided me? And I fear not the deities whom ye join with Him, for only by the will of my Lord have they any power:[824] My Lord embraceth all things in His knowledge. Will ye not then consider?

And how should I fear what ye have joined with God, since ye fear not for having joined with Him that for which He hath sent you down no warranty? Which, therefore, of the two parties is more worthy of safety? Know ye that?

They who believe, and who clothe not their faith with error.[825] theirs is safety, and they are guided aright."

This is our reasoning with which we furnished Abraham against his people: We uplift to grades of wisdom whom we will; Verily thy Lord is Wise, Knowing.

And we gave him Isaac and Jacob, and guided both aright; and we had before guided Noah; and among the descendants of Abraham, David and Solomon, and Job and Joseph, and Moses and Aaron: Thus do we recompense the righteous:

And Zachariah, John, Jesus, and Elias: all were just persons:

And Ismael and Elisha and Jonas and Lot: all these have we favoured above mankind:

And some of their fathers, and of their offspring, and of their brethren: and we chose them, and guided them into the straight way.

This is God's guidance: He guideth by it such of his servants as he will: But if they join others god with Him, vain assuredly shall be all their works.

These are they to whom we gave the Scripture and Wisdom and Prophecy: but if these their posterity believe not therein, we will entrust these gifts to a people who will not disbelieve therein.

These are they whom God hath guided: follow therefore their guidance. SAY: No pay do I ask of you for this:[826] Verily it is no other than the teaching for all creatures.

No just estimate do they form of God when they say, "Nothing hath God sent down to man." SAY: Who sent down the Book which Moses brought, a light and guidance to man, which ye set down on paper, publishing part, but concealing most: though ye have now been taught that which neither ye nor your fathers knew? SAY: It is God: then leave them in their pastime of cavillings.[827]

And this Book which we have sent down is blessed, confirming that which was before it; and in order that thou mightest warn the mother-city and those who dwell round about it. They who believe in the next life will believe in It, and will keep strictly to their Prayers.

But is any more wicked than he who deviseth a lie of God, or saith, "I have had a revelation," when nothing was revealed to him?[828] And who saith, "I can bring down a book like that which God hath sent down"? But couldst thou see when the ungodly are in the floods of death, and the angels reach forth their hands, saying, "Yield up your souls:—this day shall ye be recompensed with a humiliating punishment for your untrue sayings about God, and for proudly rejecting his signs!"

"And now are ye come back to us, alone, as we created you at first, and ye leave behind you the good things which we had given you, and we see not with you your intercessors whom ye regarded as the companions of God among you. There is a severance between you now, and those whom ye regarded as partners with God have deserted you."

Verily God causeth the grain and the date stone to put forth: He bringeth forth the living from the dead, and the dead from the living! This is God! Why, then, are ye turned aside from Him?

He causeth the dawn to appear, and hath ordained the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for computing time! The ordinance of the Mighty, the Wise!

And it is He who hath ordained the stars for you that ye may be guided thereby in the darknesses of the land and of the sea! clear have we made our signs to men of knowledge.

And it is He who hath produced you from one man, and hath provided for you an abode and resting-place![829] Clear have we made our signs for men of insight.

And it is He who sendeth down rain from Heaven: and we bring forth by it the buds of all the plants, and from them bring we forth the green foliage, and the close growing grain, and palm trees with sheaths of clustering dates, and gardens of grapes, and the olive and the pomegranate, like and unlike.[830] Look ye on their fruits when they fruit and ripen. Truly herein are signs unto people who believe.

Yet have they assigned the Djinn to God as his associates, though He created them; and in their ignorance have they falsely ascribed to him sons and daughters. Glory be to Him! And high let Him be exalted above that which they attribute to Him!

Sole maker of the Heavens and of the Earth! how, when He hath no consort, should He have a son? He hath created everything, and He knoweth everything!

This is God your Lord. There is no God but He, the creator of all things: therefore worship Him alone;—and He watcheth over all things.

No vision taketh in Him, but He taketh in all vision:[831] and He is the Subtile, the All-informed.

Now have proofs that may be seen, come to you from your Lord; whoso seeth them, the advantage will be his own: and whoso is blind to them, his own will be the loss: I am not made a keeper over you.

Thus variously do we apply our signs,[832] that they may say, "Thou hast studied deep:" and that to people of understanding we may make them clear.

Follow thou that which hath been revealed to thee by thy Lord: there is no god but He! and withdraw from those who join other gods with Him.

Had God pleased, they had not joined other gods with Him: and we have not made thee keeper over them, neither art thou a guardian over them.

Revile not those whom they call on beside God,[833] lest they, in their ignorance, despitefully revile Him. Thus have we planned out their actions for every people; then shall they return to their Lord, and He will declare to them what those actions have been.

With their most solemn oath have they sworn by God, that if a sign come unto them they will certainly believe it; SAY: Signs are in the power of God alone; and He teacheth you not thereby, only because when they were wrought, ye did not believe.[834]

And we will turn their hearts and their eyes away from the truth, because they did not believe therein at first, and we will leave them in their transgressions, wandering in perplexity.

And though we had sent down the angels to them, and the dead had spoken to them, and we had gathered all things about them in tribes, they had not believed, unless God had willed it! but most of them do not know it.

Thus have we given an enemy to every prophet Satans among men and among Djinn: tinsel discourses do they suggest the one to the other, in order to deceive: and had thy Lord willed it, they would not have done it. Therefore, leave them and their vain imaginings—

And let the hearts of those who believe not in the life to come incline thereto, and let them find their content in this, and let them gain what they are gaining.

What! shall I seek other judge than God, when it is He who hath sent down to you the distinguishing Book? They to whom we have given the Book know that it is sent down from thy Lord with truth. Be not thou then of those who doubt.

And the words of thy Lord are perfect in truth and in justice: none can change his words: He is the Hearing, Knowing.

But if thou obey most men in this land, from the path of God will they mislead thee: they follow but a conceit, and they are only liars.

Thy Lord! He best knoweth those who err from his path, and He knoweth the rightly guided.

Eat[835] of that over which the name of God hath been pronounced, if ye believe in his signs.

And why eat ye not of that over which the name of God hath been pronounced, since He hath made plain to you what He hath forbidden you, save as to that which is forced upon you? But indeed many mislead others by their appetites, through lack of knowledge. Verily, thy Lord! He best knoweth the transgressors.

And abandon the semblance of wickedness, and wickedness itself.[836] They, verily, whose only acquirement is iniquity, shall be rewarded for what they shall have gained.

Eat not therefore of that on which the name of God has not been named, for that is assuredly a crime: the Satans will indeed suggest to their votaries to wrangle with you; but if ye obey them, ye will indeed be of those who join gods with God.

Shall the dead, whom we have quickened, and for whom we have ordained a light whereby he may walk among men, be like him, whose likeness is in the darkness, whence he will not come forth? Thus have the doings of the unbelievers been prepared for them.

Even so have we placed in every city, ringleaders of its wicked ones, to scheme therein: but only against themselves shall they scheme! and they know it not.

And when a sign cometh to them they say, "We will not believe, till the like of what was accorded to the apostles of God, be accorded to us." God best knoweth where to place his mission. Disgrace with God, and a vehement punishment shall come on the transgressors for their crafty plottings.

And whom God shall please to guide, that man's breast will He open to Islam; but whom He shall please to mislead, strait and narrow will He make his breast, as though he were mounting up into the very Heavens! Thus doth God inflict dire punishment on those who believe not.

And this is the right way of thy Lord. Now have we detailed our signs unto those who will consider.

For them is a dwelling of peace with their Lord! and in recompense for their works, shall he be their protector.

On the day whereon God shall gather them all together . . . "O race of Djinn," will He say, "much did ye exact from mankind." And their votaries from among men shall say, "O our Lord! we rendered one another mutual services: but we have reached our set term, which thou hast set for us." He will say, "Your abode the fire! therein abide ye for ever: unless as God shall will." Verily, thy Lord is Wise, Knowing.

Even thus place we some of the wicked over others, as the meed of their doings.

O race of Djinn and men! came not apostles to you from among yourselves, rehearsing my signs to you, and warning you of the meeting of this your day? They shall say, "We bear witness against ourselves." This world's life deceived them; and they shall bear witness against themselves that they were infidels:—

This,[837] because thy Lord would not destroy the cities in their sin, while their people were yet careless.

And for all, are grades of recompense as the result of their deeds; and of what they do, thy Lord is not regardless.

And thy Lord is the Rich one, full of compassion! He can destroy you if He please, and cause whom He will to succeed you, as he raised you up from the offspring of other people:

Verily, that which is threatened you shall surely come to pass, neither shall ye weaken its might.

SAY: O my people! Act as ye best can: I verily will act my part, and hereafter shall ye know

Whose will be the recompense of the abode! Verily, the ungodly shall not prosper.

Moreover, they set apart a portion of the fruits and cattle[838] which he hath produced, and say, "This for God"—so deem they—"And this for his companions, whom we associate with Him." But that which is for these companions of theirs, cometh not to God; yet that which is for God, cometh to the companions! Ill do they judge.

Thus have the companion-gods induced many of these, who join them with God, to slay their children, that they might ruin them, and throw the cloak of confusion over their religion. But if God had pleased, they had not done this. Therefore, leave them and their devices.

They also say, "These cattle and fruits are sacred: none may taste them but whom we please:" so deem they—"And there are cattle, whose backs should be exempt from labour." And there are cattle over which they do not pronounce the name of God: inventing in all this a lie against Him. For their inventions shall He reward them.

And they say, "That which is in the wombs of these cattle is allowed to our males, and forbidden to our wives;" but if it prove abortive, both partake of it. God shall reward them for their distinctions! Knowing, Wise is He.

Lost are they who, in their ignorance, have foolishly slain their children, and have forbidden that which God hath given them for food, devising an untruth against God! Now have they erred; and they were not rightly guided.

He it is who produceth gardens of the vine trellised and untrellised, and the palm trees, and the corn of various food, and olives, and pomegranates, like and unlike. Eat of their fruit when they bear fruit, and pay the due thereof on the day of its ingathering: and be not prodigal, for God loveth not the prodigal.

And there are cattle for burdens and for journeys. Eat of what God hath given you for food; and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your declared enemy.

You have four sorts of cattle in pairs: of sheep a pair, and of goats a pair. SAY: Hath He forbidden the two males or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females enclose? Tell me with knowledge, if ye speak the truth:

And of camels a pair, and of oxen a pair. SAY: Hath He forbidden the two males or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females enclose?[839] Were ye witnesses when God enjoined you this? Who then is more wicked than he who, in his ignorance, inventeth a lie against God, to mislead men? God truly guideth not the wicked.

SAY: I find not in what hath been revealed to me aught forbidden to the eater to eat, except it be that which dieth of itself, or blood poured forth, or swine's flesh; for this is unclean or profane, being slain in the name of other than God. But whoso shall be a forced partaker, if it be without wilfulness, and not in transgression,—verily, thy Lord is Indulgent, Merciful!

To the Jews did we forbid every beast having an entire hoof, and of both bullocks and sheep we forbade them the fat, save what might be on their backs, or their entrails, and the fat attached to the bone. With this have we recompensed them, because of their transgression: and verily, we are indeed equitable.

If they treat thee as an impostor, then SAY: Your Lord is of all-embracing mercy: but his severity shall not be turned aside from the wicked.

They who add gods to God will say, "If God had pleased, neither we nor our fathers had given him companions, nor should we have interdicted anything." Thus did they who flourished before them charge with imposture, until they had tasted our severity! SAY: Have ye any knowledge that ye can produce to us? Verily, ye follow only a conceit: ye utter only lies!

SAY: Peremptory proof is God's! Had He pleased He had guided you all aright.

SAY: Bring hither your witnesses who can witness that God hath forbidden these animals; but if they bear witness, witness not thou with them, nor witness to the conceits of those who charge our signs with falsehood, and who believe not in the life to come, and give equals to our Lord.

SAY: Come, I will rehearse what your Lord hath made binding on you—that ye assign not aught to Him as partner; and that ye be good to your parents; and that ye slay not your children, because of poverty: for them and for you will we provide:[840] and that ye come not near to pollutions, outward or inward:[841] and that ye slay not anyone whom God hath forbidden you, unless for a just cause. This hath he enjoined on you, to the intent that ye may understand.

And come not nigh to the substance of the orphan, but to improve it, until he come of age: and use a full measure, and a just balance: We will not task a soul beyond its ability. And when ye give judgment, observe justice, even though it be the affair of a kinsman, and fulfil the covenant of God. This hath God enjoined you for your monition—

And, "this is my right way." Follow it then; and follow not other paths lest ye be scattered from His path. This hath he enjoined you, that ye may fear Him.

Then[842] gave we the Book to Moses—complete for him who should do right, and a decision for all matters, and a guidance, and a mercy, that they might believe in the meeting with their Lord.

Blessed, too, this Book which we have sent down. Wherefore follow it and fear God, that ye may find mercy:

Lest ye should say, "The Scriptures were indeed sent down only unto two peoples before us, but we were not able to go deep into their studies:"[843]

Or lest ye should say, "If a book had been sent down to us, we had surely followed the guidance better than they." But now hath a clear exposition come to you from your Lord, and a guidance and a mercy. Who then is more wicked than he who treateth the signs of God as lies, and turneth aside from them? We will recompense those who turn aside from our signs with an evil punishment, because they have turned aside.

What wait they for, but the coming of the angels to them, or the coming of thy Lord Himself, or that some of the sings of the Lord should come to pass? On the day when some of thy Lord's signs shall come to pass, its faith shall not profit a soul which believed not before, nor wrought good works in virtue of its faith. SAY: Wait ye. Verily, we will wait also.

As to those who split up their religion and become sects, have thou nothing to do with them: their affair is with God only. Hereafter shall he tell them what they have done.

He who shall present himself with good works shall receive a tenfold reward; but he who shall present himself with evil works shall receive none other than a like punishment: and they shall not be treated unjustly.

SAY: As for me, my Lord hath guided me into a straight path; a true religion, the creed of Abraham, the sound in faith; for he was not of those who join gods with God.

SAY: My prayers and my worship and my life and my death are unto God, Lord of the Worlds. He hath no associate. This am I commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.

SAY: Shall I seek any other Lord than God, when He is Lord of all things? No soul shall labour but for itself; and no burdened one shall bear another's burden. At last ye shall return to your Lord, and he will declare that to you about which you differ.

And it is He who hath made you the successors of others on the earth, and hath raised some of you above others by various grades, that he may prove you by his gifts. Verily thy Lord is swift to punish. But He is also Gracious, Merciful!



[804] Lit. their affair would have been decided. In that case there would no longer have been an opportunity for the warnings of the prophets and for repentance, but the angels would at once have executed the divine judgments.

[805] See Sura xli. 13, p. 193.

[806] See Sura [xc.] xiii. 36.

[807] This denunciation is repeated in eleven other passages of the Koran, and coupled with the known reverence of the early Muslims for what they considered as the word of God, must have greatly tended to secure the revelations of the Prophet from being in any way tampered with and corrupted.

[808] They are self-convicted of their own hypocrisy and of the hollowness of their professions.

[809] The Resurrection, etc.

[810] Abu Jahl had said: "Muhammad speaks truth, and he never said a falsehood; but, if the Banu Chosai, who enjoy already the offices of bearing the standard, of providing the pilgrims with water, and of keeping the keys of the Kaaba, should also obtain the Prophetship, what would remain for the other Koreisch." Kashaf in 1.

[811] See Sura lii. 38, p. 65. These passages may allude to the ladder set up in a tower by Wacih ben Salamah, one of the ancient doorkeepers of the Caaba, by which he professed to mount up to God and receive divine Oracles. Freyt. Einl. p. 371.

[812] A community. Comp. Prov. xxx. 25, 26. Animals as well as mankind are under the control of God, are held within the limits of his decrees, are accountable to him, and will stand before him in the judgment.

[813] Of the Eternal decrees.

[814] Or, embellished, made it fair-seeming.

[815] Lit. openly, i.e. preceded by some sign.

[816] The Rabbins speak of the three keys in the hand of God. Tr. Tanith, fol. x.

[817] On the preserved tablet, on which are written the decrees of God.

[818] That is, during sleep. See Sura xxxix. 43, p. 258. Or, layeth to rest. Mar. renders literally, defungi faciet vos, id est, obdormiscere. Thus also Beidh. But see the use of the same word in the next verse.

[819] Or, to perplex you (by dividing you into) sects.

[820] Comp. Sura [cx.] 1x. 13.

[821] Azar. This form is probably borrowed from Athar, as Terah is called by Eusebius. See Maracci Prodr. iv. 90. Compare a similar narrative (Midr. Rabbah on Gen. par. 17) in which Abraham is given over by his idolatrous father Zarah to Nimrod, who says, "We will adore the Fire:" "Rather," said Abraham, "the water which puts out fire." "The Water then"—"Rather the clouds that bear the water." "The Clouds then"—"Rather the wind which scatters the clouds." "The Wind then"—"Rather man who endures the wind." Whereupon Abraham was thrown into the furnace. It is quite possible that in what follows, Muhammad may have intended to imply that Abraham had renounced the Sabian starworship of his fathers, and to vindicate him from the habit of consulting the stars attributed to him by the Talmudists. Shabbath, fol. 156, col. 1. "Abraham replied, I have consulted my Astrology." Comp. Rashi on Gen. xv. 5. See Maim. Yad Hachaz. vii. 6.

[822] Comp. Gen. xv. 5.

[823] See Sura xxi. 52.

[824] Lit. unless that my Lord shall will anything.

[825] Or, confuse not their faith with wrong, injustice, i.e. idolatry.

[826] Koran.

[827] This verse and the following were probably added at Medina after the Hejira; at least it is difficult to conceive that Muhammad would have ventured thus to have written at Mecca.

[828] This verse is said to have been revealed at Medina and to be aimed at the false prophets Moseilama, Aswad and Amsi; also at Abdallah Ibn Saad, Muhammad's secretary, who for corrupting the sacred text and apostacy, was one of the ten proscribed at the taking of Mecca.

[829] In the womb.

[830] Of all sorts.

[831] Lit. attaineth to. Mr. Lane renders, "the eyes see not Him, but He seeth the eyes."

[832] The verses of the Koran.

[833] Comp. Ex. xxii. 28.

[834] Notwithstanding this disclaimer, the Muslim tradition, etc. speak of many of their Prophet's miracles. See Maracci's Prodr. p. ii. p. 16, and 30 46.

[835] Verses 118-121 seem misplaced, and should probably follow 154.

[836] Lit. the outside of iniquity and its inside. Some understand these words of open sins, and secret sins.

[837] That is, God's method of dealing with the guilty was to send apostles previous to the execution of his judgments.

[838] It appears to have been the custom of the idolatrous Arabs to set apart one portion of their fields for the Supreme God, and the other for the inferior gods represented by their idols. If any of the fruit happened to fall from the part consecrated to the idols into that consecrated to God, they restored it, but if the reverse occurred, they gave it to the idols. God, said they, is rich and can dispense with it. The secret, however, was that the idols' portion was reserved for the priests, Beidhawi. Freytag mentions the names of 73 idols worshipped by the Arab tribes, previous to Islam (Einl. pp. 270 and 342 357) and generally with Allah, as Supreme God.

[839] Comp. Sura [cxiv.] v. 102.

[840] Comp. Sura xvii. 33, p. 167.

[841] See verse 120 above.

[842] This very abrupt transition to Jewish history seems to indicate that a passage between this and the preceding verse is lost.

[843] Lit. we were careless of their studies

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