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Appendix B

(In the table below, the 36 male suffrage states are grouped under classifications which represent, as far as can be represented in a table, the various degrees of difficulty met in the amending clauses of State Constitutions.)

  1. A.—Amendment passed by the Legislature or Constitutional Convention: Delaware: Amendments are not put to the referendum vote. They must pass two legislatures by a two-thirds majority each time. The Legislature sits biennially. A Constitutional Convention can also pass amendments without reference to the people.

  2. B.—Passed by majority one Legislature and majority vote of people on the referendum or by constitutional convention with referendum: Missouri—Biennial Legislature. Initiative petition also possible. South Dakota—Biennial. Constitutional Convention hard to call.

  3. C.—Large Legislative vote necessary: Florida, three fifths, biennial. Georgia, two-thirds, annual. Maine, two-thirds, biennial. Michigan, two-thirds, biennial. Initiative petition also possible. North Carolina, three-fifths, biennial. Ohio, three-fifths, biennial. Initiative petition also possible. West Virginia, two-thirds, biennial.

  4. D.—Same as C., but no, or infrequent Constitutional Conventions: Louisiana, two-thirds, biennial, no Constitutional Convention. Texas, two-thirds, biennial, no Constitutional Convention. Maryland, three-fifths, biennial, 20 years interval between Constitutional Conventions.

  5. E.—Difficult States: Alabama—Legislature: three-fifths vote of one Legislature (quadrennial). People: Majority of all votes cast at the election. Iowa—Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority of all voting for representatives. Minnesota—Legislature: Majority vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Majority of votes at the election. New York—Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (annual). People: Majority voting on amendment. Virginia—Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority of people voting on amendment. Oklahoma—Legislature: Majority vote of one Legislature (biennial). Initiative petition possible. People: Majority voting at election. North Dakota—Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (biennial). Initiative petition possible. People: Majority voting on the amendment. No Constitutional Convention. South Carolina—Legislature: Two-thirds of two Legislatures (annual).—One before submission to people; the other after ratification by them. People: Majority voting for representatives. Wisconsin—Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority voting at the election.

  6. F.—Very Difficult States: Arkansas—Legislature: Majority vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Majority of all voting at election. Only three amendments at once. No Constitutional Convention. Connecticut—Legislature: Majority vote of one Legislature; two-thirds vote a second Legislature (biennial). People: Majority votes of the people on the amendment. No Constitutional Convention. Kentucky—Legislature; three-fifths vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Majority of people voting on the amendment. Not more than two amendments at once. Massachusetts—Legislature: Majority in Senate and two-thirds House in two Legislatures (annual). People: Majority voting on the amendment. No Constitutional Convention. New Jersey—Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (annual). People: Majority voting on amendment. Same amendment can be submitted only once in five years. No Constitutional Convention. Mississippi—Legislature: Two-thirds vote of one Legislature; majority of a second, after the referendum vote (quadrennial). People: Majority voting at the election. No Constitutional Convention. Pennsylvania—Legislature: Majority of the two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority of people voting at election. Same amendment can be submitted only once in five years. No Constitutional Convention. Rhode Island—Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (annual). People: Three-fifths of all voting at election. No Constitutional Convention. Tennessee—Legislature: Majority vote in one Legislature, and a two-thirds vote in a second (biennial). People: Majority of all voting for representatives. Same amendment can be submitted only once in six years.

  7. G.—Most Difficult States: Vermont—Legislature: Majority in House and two-thirds in Senate in one Legislature; majority of both houses in a second (biennial). People: Majority voting on the amendment. No Constitutional Convention. Constitution can be amended only once in ten years. New Hampshire—Constitutional Convention alone can propose amendment. This convention is held once in seven years. People: Two-thirds majority vote on amendment. Illinois—Legislature: Two-thirds vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Majority voting at the election. Only one amendment at a time. Same amendment only once in four years. Indiana—Legislature: Majority vote of two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority of voters in state. While one amendment awaits action no other can be proposed. No Constitutional Convention. New Mexico—Legislature: Three-fourths vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Three-fourths of those voting at election; two-thirds from each county.

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