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The Journals of Lewis and Clarkby Meriwether Lewis and William Clark

August 2, 1804
August 4, 1804

August 3, 1804

August 3rd Friday prepare a Small preasent for those Indians and hold a Councul Delivered a Speech & made 8 6 chief ... gave a fiew preasents and, a Smoke a Dram, Some Powder & Ball— the man we Sent not yet come up, Those people express great Satisfaction at the Speech Delivered they are no Oreters, big, open Counternances, ottoes large Missor Small

at 4 oClock Set out under a gentle Breeze from the S. E proceeded on N. 5° E 5 Ms. Passed a Pt. on the S. S. and round a large Sand bar on the L. S. and Camped above, below a great number of Snags quit across the river, The Musquitors more numerous than I ever Saw them, all in Spirrits, we had Some rough Convasation G. Dr. about boys.

The Osage & Kansies are the Same language

the Ottoes & Mahars Speek many words of the Osarge language

The Ottos, Aiaways, & Missouries Speake the Same language the Panies & Recreries Speak the Same language also the Loups & repub. the Mahar, & Poncarar the Same Language The Cheaun, Mandin & Grovanter the Same The Probibility is that those defferant tribes have once formed 3 great nats. Viz: the Missouries, Osarge, Kanzes, Ottoes, Mahars, & Poncaras & Aiauaies one nation.

The Panies, Loups, Republican, Recrerees the 2nd

The Mandans Cheeons, & Grovanters the 3rd The tribes of the Soux all retain the name 4th

It is possible that the, Mahar & Poncarear may have been a Distinct nation, as they only Speek Some words of the osage which have the Same Signification 25 Days to St Ta fee S. of W. Cross the heads of Arkansies around the head of Kanzies River after Delivering a Speech informing thos Children of ours of the Change which had taken place, the wishes of our government to Cultivate friendship & good understanding, the method of have good advice & Some Directions, we made 1 Great Chief to the who was not present, to whom we adresed the Speech & Sent Some presents or Meadels & flag, we made 2 Second Chiefs one for the Missouris & another for the Ottos (those two tribes are nearly equal 1'70 each) and 4 principal men, to thos principal men to thos we gave a Small Comtn. to each man to whom we gave authority, a preasn of Br. Ch. Gart. g. Paint & a med. or Contn a Small Corns. was delivered for the whole each Chief & principal man delivered a Speech acknowledging ther approbation to what they had heard and promised to prosue the good advice and Caustion, they were happy w new fathers who gave good advice & to be Depended on all Concluded by asking a little Powder & a Drop of Milk.

I answered those Speeches gave them 50 balls one Canister of Powder & a Dram— after Cap Lewis Shot his air gun a few times which astonished the nativs, we Set Sail. recved from thos people water millions & The Cheifs & Principal men of the Ottoes & Missouris made by M L. & W C the 3rd August 1804 Viz.

Indian Names Tribe English Signifiation
1. We-ar-ruge-nor Ottoe Little Thief
2. Shingo-ton go Otto Big horse
We tha a Missourie Hospatallity
3. Wau-pe-ur Miss.
Au-ho-ning ga M
Ba Za con ja Ottoe
Au-ho-ne-ga Miss.

from this place I am told by Mr. Faufong the interpeter that it will take a man 25 Days to go to St. a fee pass, the heads of Arkansas, round the Kansas head, across Some mountains from the top of which the City may be Seen the Spaniards have envited those Indians & the Panies to trade with them & Some french & a few indians are gorn from the Panias to that City this Summer—

The Situation of this place which we Call Council Bluff which is handsom ellevated a Spot well Calculated for a Tradeing establishment, the Bank high & leavel on top well Calculated for a fort to Command the Countrey and river the low bottom above high water & well Situated under the Command of the Hill for Houses to trade with the Natives a butifull Plain both abov and below at no other bend on either Side does the High land touch the river for Some distance up, as I am told.

those Bluffs afford good Clay for Brick, a great quantity on the 3 points one Opsd. one abov &one below.— the Situation I am informed is, within 1 Days march of the Ottoes, 11/2 of the Panias, 2 of the Mahars, & 21/2 of the Loups Villages, also Convenient to the roveing Bands of Soux, Those people are now at war with each other, an establishment here would bring about peace and be the means of Keeping of it.

Augt. 3d Camped on the upper point of a large Sand bar L. S. Misquters verry bad. Some place near Conncill Bluff will be the most proper place for a tradeing establishment, for maney of the nations, the distance is to the Ottoes one Days, Ponies 11/2 days, to the Mahar, 2 days, to Loups 2 Days & a half 16 or 1800 men—and convenient for Some bands of the Sues,

August 3rd, Friday 1804

made up a Small preasent for those people in perpotion to their Consiqunce. also a package with a meadile to accompany a Speech for the Grand Chief after Brackfast we Collected those Indians under an orning of our Main Sail, in presence of our Party paraded & Delivered a long Speech to them expressive of our journey the wirkes of our Government, Some advice to them and Directions how They were to Conduct themselves, the princapal Chief for the nation being absente we sent him the Speech flag Meadel & Some Cloathes. after hering what they had to say Delivered a medal of Second Grade to one for the Ottos & and one for the Missourie present and 4 medals of a third Grade to the inferior Chief two for each tribe. Those two parts of nations, Ottos & Missouries now residing together is about 250 men are the Ottoes Composeing 2/3d and Missourie 1/3 part

The names of the Chiefs we acknowledged Made this day are as follows Viz

Indian name English signftn.
1st We ar ruge nor Ottoe Called Little Theif
2 Shon go ton go " " Big Horse
We the a Miss. " Hospatality
Shon Guss Con Ottoe " White horse
Wau pe uh M.
Ah ho ning ga M.
Baza cou ja Ottoe
Ah ho ne ga M.

Those Chiefs all Delivered a Speech acknowledgeing Their approbation to the Speech and promissing to prosue the advice & Derictions given them that they wer happy to find that they had fathers which might be depended on &c.

We gave them a Cannister of Powder and a Bottle of whiskey and delivered a few presents to the whole after giveing a Br. Cth. Some Paint guartering & a Meadele to those we made Cheifs after Capt Lewis's Shooting the air gun a feiw Shots (which astonished those nativs) we Set out and proceeded on five miles on a Direct line passed a point on the S. S. & round a large Sand bar on the L. S. & Camped on the upper point. The Misquitors excessively troublesom this evening Great appearance of wind and rain to the N. W. we prepare to rec've it— The man Liberty whome we Sent for the Ottoes has not Come up he left the Ottoes Town one Day before the Indians. This man has eithered tired his horse or, lost himself in the Plains Some Indians are to hunt for him, The Situation of our last Camp Councill Bluff or Handssom Prarie appears to be a verry proper place for a Tradeing establishment & fortification The Soil of the Bluff well adapted for Brick, Great deel of timbers abov in the two Points. many other advantages of a Small nature. and I am told Senteral to Several nations Viz. one Days march from the Ottoe Town, one Day & a half from the great Pania village, 2 days from the Mahar Towns, two 1/4 Days from the Loups Village, & Convenient to the Countrey thro which Bands of the Soux hunt. perhaps no other Situation is as well Calculated for a Tradeing establishment. The air is pure and helthy So far as we can judge.—


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