Asian Food Primer: Chinese Food
by David Johnson
The term "Chinese food" can be misleading because there are many Chinese styles of cooking.
Scholars believe that Chinese cooking as we know it today dates to the Shang Dynasty, which lasted from 1500 to 1000 B.C. During this period China emerged as a well-organized agricultural society, which used complex writing, the calendar, and made splendid bronze sculptures.
In later dynasties, China expanded and cuisine began to acquire distinctive northern and southern characteristics. Eventually, various styles of Chinese cooking came to be recognized. Beijing, Sichuan or Szechwan, and Cantonese are among the best known in the United States.
Cooking from throughout China has influenced Beijing cuisine, because emperors of the Ming and Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasties held cooking contests, drawing chefs from across the empire. Many Beijing dishes originated in the imperial kitchens and today some fancy restaurants boast their faithfulness to classical imperial recipes.
beef, chicken, vegetables, wheat products, vinegar, garlic
Beijing (Peking) duck, hot pots of mutton and sauce; bean curd with ginger; beef, chicken, or shrimp lo mein; butterfly shrimp; tofu; dumplings; noodles; breads
The Western provinces of Sichuan and Hunan are known for their hot spicy food.
fish, domestic animals, birds, wild herbs, garlic, scallions, chilies
stir-fried chicken with dry chili peppers; bean curd with spicy minced pork; double-cooked pork
Most Chinese in North America came from Southern China. Therefore, Cantonese food is often synonymous with Chinese cuisine.
everything and anything: seafood, poultry, wild birds, snakes, rats, insects, even dogs and cats, vegetables, herbs, rice, soy and other sauces
whole steamed fish; poached chicken; roast pigeon; Chinese broccoli with oyster sauce; barbecued spare ribs; chicken fried rice; Cantonese egg foo yung; stir-fried lobster and chicken