This was 212th day of the year and 153 days remained in the year.
July 31 in History
The Marquis de Lafayette became a major-general in the American Continental Army.
The first U.S. patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for a process of making fertilizer.
Mount Godwin-Austen (K2), the world's second-highest peak, was climbed for the first time, by an Italian team led by Ardito Desio.
The U.S. space probe Ranger 7 transmitted pictures of the Moon’s surface.
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Note: Dates in the Islamic calendar are provided for planning purposes only, and calculated with the hdate Islamic calendar program for moonrise in Boston, Masschusetts. Depending on your location and other factors, this result may differ from actual religious observances by one day. Please consult your local religious authority for any religious determinations of hejiric date.