Oliver Wendell Holmes, the famous Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, wrote that the running horse was a gambling toy, but that the trotting horse was useful and, furthermore, “horse-racing is not a republican institution; horse-trotting is.” Holmes was a born-and-bred New Englander, and New England was the nursery of the harness-racing sport in America. Pacers and trotters were matters of local pride and prejudice in colonial New England, and, shortly after the Revolution, the Messenger and Justin Morgan strains produced many winners in harness racing “matches” along the turnpikes of New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire.
There was English thoroughbred blood in Messenger and Justin Morgan, and, many years later, it was blended in Rysdyk's Hambletonian, foaled in 1849. Hambletonian was not particularly fast under harness, but his descendants have had almost a monopoly of prizes, titles, and records in the harness-racing game. Hambletonian was purchased as a foal with its dam for a total of $124 by William Rysdyk of Goshen, N.Y., and made a modest fortune for the purchaser.
Trotters and pacers often were raced under saddle in the old days, and, in fact, the custom still survives in some places in Europe. Dexter, the great trotter that lowered the mile record from 2:193/4 to 2:171/4 in 1867, was said to handle just as well under saddle as when pulling a sulky. But as sulkies were lightened in weight and improved in design, trotting under saddle became less common and finally faded out in the United States.