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Roman Republic and Roman Empire: Rulers

Roman Republic

  • Cato the Elder, statesman (234–149 B.C.)
  • Gracchi, (Tiberius Sempronius Graccus [d. 133B.C.] and Caius Sempronius Gracchus [d. 121 B.C.], statesmen and social reformers
  • Caius Marius, general and consul (157–86 B.C.)
  • Lucius Cornelius Sulla, general and consul (138–78 B.C.)
  • Pompey, general and member of First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Crassus (106–48B.C.)
  • Marcus Licinius Crassus, member of First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey (d. 53 B.C.)
  • Cato the Younger, statesman (95–46 B.C.)
  • Julius Caesar, general and statesman (100?–44 B.C.)
  • Marc Antony, politician and soldier, member of Second Triumvirate with Lepidus and Octavian (Augustus) (83–30 B.C.)
  • Lepidus, member of Second Triumvirate with Marc Antony and Octavian (d. 13 B.C.)

Roman Empire

  • Augustus, (Octavian) first emperor, grandnephew of Julius Caesar, (27 B.C.A.D. 14)
  • Tiberius, stepson of Augustus, (14–37)
  • Caligula, grandnephew of Tiberius (37–41)
  • Claudius, uncle of Caligula (41–54)
  • Nero, stepson of Claudius (54–68)
  • Galba, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (68–69)
  • Otho, military commander (69)
  • Vitellius, military commander (69)
  • Vespasian, military commander (69–79)
  • Titus, son of Vespasian (79–81)
  • Domitian, son of Vespasian (81–96)
  • Nerva, elected interim ruler (96-98)
  • Trajan, adopted son of Nerva (98–117)
  • Hadrian, ward of Trajan (117–138)
  • Antoninus Pius, adopted by Hadrian (138–161)
  • Marcus Aurelius, adopted by Antoninus Pius (161–180)
  • Lucius Verus, adopted by Antoninus Pius; ruled jointly with Marcus Aurelius (161–169)
  • Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius (180–192)
  • Pertinax, proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard (193)
  • Didius Julianus, bought office from the Praetorian Guard (193)
  • Severus, proclaimed emperor (193–211)
  • Caracalla, son of Severus (211–217)
  • Geta, son of Severus, ruled jointly with Caracalla (211–212)
  • Macrinus, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers (217–18)
  • Heliogabalus, cousin of Caracalla (218–222)
  • Alexander Severus, cousin of Heliogabalus (222–235)
  • Maximin, proclaimed emperor by soldiers, (235–238)
  • Gordian I, made emperor by the senate (238)
  • Gordian II, son of Gordian I, ruled jointly with his father (238)
  • Balbinus, elected joint emperor by the senate (238)
  • Pupienus Maximus, elected joint emperor with Balbinus by the senate (238)
  • Gordian III, son of Gordian II (238–244)
  • Philip (the Arabian), assassin of Gordian III (244–249)
  • Decius, proclaimed emperor by the soldiers (249–2251)
  • Hostilianus, son of Decius, colleague of Gallus (251)
  • Gallus, military commander (251–253)
  • Aemilianus, military commander (253)
  • Valerian, military commander (253–260)
  • Gallienus, son of Valerian, coemperor with his father and later sole emperor (253–268)
  • Claudius II, military commander (268–270)
  • Aurelian, chosen by Claudius II as successor (270–275)
  • Tacitus, chosen by the senate (275–276)
  • Florianus, half brother of Tacitus (276)
  • Probus, military commander (276–282)
  • Carus, proclaimed by the Praetorian Guard (282–283)
  • Carinus, son of Carus (283–285)
  • Numerianus, son of Carus, joint emperor with Carinus (283–284)
  • Diocletian, military commander, divided the empire; ruled jointly with Maximian and Constantius I 284–305)
  • Maximian, appointed joint emperor by Diocletian (286–305)
  • Constantius I, joint emperor and successor of Diocletian (305–306)
  • Galerius, joint emperor with Constantius I (305–310)
  • Maximin, nephew of Galerius (308–313)
  • Licinius, appointed emperor in the West by Galerius; later emperor in the East (308–324)
  • Maxentius, son of Maximian (306–312)
  • Constantine I (the Great), son of Constantius I (306–337)
  • Constantine II, son of Constantine I (337–340)
  • Constans, son of Constantine I (337–350)
  • Constantius II, son of Constantine I (337–361)
  • Magnentius, usurped Constans' throne, (350–353)
  • Julian (the Apostate), nephew of Constantine I (361–363)
  • Jovian, elected by the army (363–364)
  • Valentinian I, proclaimed by the army; ruled in the West (364–375)
  • Valens, brother of Valentinian I; ruled in the East (364–378)
  • Gratian, son of Valentinian I; coruler in the West with Valentinian II (375–383)
  • Maximus, usurper in the West (383–388)
  • Valentinian II, son of Valentinian I, ruler of the West (375–392)
  • Eugenius, usurper in the West (393–394)
  • Theodosius I (the Great), appointed ruler of the East (379–395) by Gratian; last ruler of united empire (394–395)

Emperors in the East

  • Arcadius, son of Theodosius I (395–408)
  • Theodosius II, son of Arcadius, (408–450)
  • Marcian, brother-in-law of Theodosius II (450–457)
  • Leo I, chosen by the senate (457–474)
  • Leo II, grandson of Leo I (474)
  • Zeno (474–475)
  • Basilicus (475–476)

Emperors in the West

  • Honorius, son of Theodosius (395–423)
  • Maximus, usurper in Spain (409–411)
  • Constantius III, named joint emperor by Honorius (421)
  • Valentinian III, nephew of Honorius and son of Constantius III (425–455)
  • Petronius Maximus, bought office by bribery (455)
  • Avitus, placed in office by Goths (455–456)
  • Majorian, puppet emperor of Ricimer (457–461)
  • Libius Severus, puppet emperor of Ricimer (461–465)
  • Anthemius, appointed by Ricimer and Leo I (467–472)
  • Olybrius, appointed by Ricimer (472–473)
  • Glycerius, appointed by Leo I (473–474)
  • Julius Nepos, appointed by Leo I (474–475)
  • Romulus Augustulus, put in office by Orestes, his father (474–476)

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