It's All Greek
The following table lists some common Greek roots, rrefixes, and suffixes.
|Greek root||Basic meaning||Example words|
|-anthrop-||human||misanthrope, philanthropy, anthropomorphic|
|-chron-||time||anachronism, chronic, chronicle, synchronize, chronometer|
|-dem-||people||democracy, demography, demagogue, endemic, pandemic|
|-morph-||form||amorphous, metamorphic, morphology|
|-path-||feeling, suffering||empathy, sympathy, apathy, apathetic, psychopathic|
|-pedo-, -ped-||child, children||pediatrician, pedagogue|
|-philo-, -phil-||having a strong affinity or love for||philanthropy, philharmonic, philosophy|
|-phon-||sound||polyphonic, cacophony, phonetics|
The following table gives a list of Greek prefixes and their basic meanings.
|Greek prefix||Basic meaning||Example words|
|a-, an-||without||achromatic, amoral, atypical, anaerobic|
|anti-, ant-||opposite; opposing||anticrime, antipollution, antacid|
|auto-||self, same||autobiography, automatic, autopilot|
|bio-, bi-||life, living organism||biology, biophysics, biotechnology, biopsy|
|geo-||Earth; geography||geography, geomagnetism, geophysics, geopolitics|
|hyper-||excessive, excessively||hyperactive, hypercritical, hypersensitive|
|micro-||small||microcosm, micronucleus, microscope|
|mono-||one, single, alone||monochrome, monosyllable, monoxide|
|neo-||new, recent||neonatal, neophyte, neoconservatism, neofascism, neodymium|
|pan-||all||panorama, panchromatic, pandemic, pantheism|
|thermo-, therm-||heat||thermal, thermometer, thermostat|
Words and word roots may also combine with suffixes. Here are examples of some important English suffixes that come from Greek:
|Greek suffix||Basic meaning||Example words|
|-ism||forms nouns and means “the act, state, or theory of”||criticism, optimism, capitalism|
|-ist||forms agent nouns from verbs ending in -ize or nouns ending in -ism and is used like -er||conformist, copyist, cyclist|
|-ize||forms verbs from nouns and adjectives||formalize, jeopardize, legalize, modernize, emphasize, hospitalize, industrialize, computerize|
|-gram||something written or drawn, a record||cardiogram, telegram|
|-graph||something written or drawn; an instrument for writing, drawing, or recording||monograph, phonograph, seismograph|
|-logue, -log||speech, discourse; to speak||monologue, dialogue, travelogue|
|-logy||discourse, expression; science, theory, study||phraseology, biology, dermatology|
|-meter, -metry||measuring device; measure||spectrometer, geometry, kilometer, parameter, perimeter|
|-oid||forms adjectives and nouns and means “like, resembling” or “shape, form”||humanoid, spheroid, trapezoid|
|-phile||one that loves or has a strong affinity for; loving||audiophile, Francophile|
|-phobe, -phobia||one that fears a specified thing; an intense fear of a specified thing||agoraphobe, agoraphobia, xenophobe, xenophobia |
|-phone||sound; device that receives or emits sound; speaker of a language||homophone, geophone, telephone, Francophone|
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