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Turkey: Rulers

SultansMustafa II (1695–1703)
Ahmed III (1703–1730)
Mahmud I (1730–1754)
Osman III (1754–1757)
Mustafa III (1757–1774)
Abdülhamit I (1774–1789)
Selim III (1789–1807)
Mustafa IV (1807–1808)
Mahmut II (1808–1839)
Abdülmecit I (1839–1861)
Abdülaziz I (1861–1876)
Murad V (1876)
Abdülhamit II (1876–1909)
Mehmet V (1909–1918)
Mehmet VI (1918–1923)
PresidentsMustafa Kemal (Kemal Atatürk), chairman of the presidium of the Grand National Assembly (1922–1923), president (1923–1938)
Mustafa Abdülhalik Renda (1938)
Ismet Inönü (1938–1950)
Mahmud Celal Bayar (1950–1960)
Cemal Gürsel (1960–1966)
Cevdet Sunay (1966–1973)
Fahri Korutürk (1973–1980)
Kenan Evren (1980–1989)
Turgut Özal (1989–1993)
Süleyman Demirel (1993–2000)
Ahmet Necdet Sezer (2000–2007)
Abdullah Gül (2007–2014)
Recep Tayyip Erdo─čan (2014– )