Disney, Walt, 1901–1966, ART OF ANIMATION. Animation pioneer, invented the multiplane camera in 1937. This advanced camera created three-dimensional effects by giving the illusion of depth, as seen in the first full-length animated feature Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Disney went on to create many more award-winning movies filled with classic characters in addition to breaking new ground in family entertainment.
Fessenden, Reginald A., 1866–1932, APPARATUS FOR SIGNALING BY ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. Canadian Reginald Fessenden made history in 1906 when he broadcast the world's first radio program through wireless transmission. He is known not just for the first radio transmission of the human voice, but for over 200 additional patents, including a version of microfilm and an early form of sonar.
Free, Alfred, 1913–2000, COMPOSITION OF MATTER. Free revolutionized urinalysis by devising a dip-and-read test, CLINISTIX®, for detecting glucose in urine. Working at Miles Laboratories, he also advanced diabetes testing with the first one-minute test for blood glucose, leading to the concept of self-testing for persons with diabetes. Today, there are many different reagents and instrumentation that were inspired by his work.
Free, Helen Murray, 1923–, INDICATOR FOR DETECTING GLUCOSE. Her work in diagnostic chemistry led to the development of many tests used in urine testing, including CLINISTIX®, introduced in 1956. Early on at Miles Laboratories, she devised tests to detect glucose, ketone, and bilirubin in urine. The procedures she and her husband, Alfred Free, developed are still used. Today, Helen Free is a high-profile promoter of science education, involved in chemistry awareness programs around the world.
Hyde, J. Franklin, 1903–1999, METHOD FOR MAKING A TRANSPARENT ARTICLE OF SILICA. Hyde was with Corning Glass when he discovered a way to create an ultra-pure glass called fused silica. Fused silica has many uses, such as in spaceship windows and high-powered telescopes like the Hubble, and as the basis for the optical fiber industry. He also was a forerunner in developing silicones, which can be found in a wide range of everyday products, including lubricants, caulks, electrical insulators, and gaskets.
Kroll, William J., 1889–1973, METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING TITANIUM AND ALLOYS THEREOF. Metallurgist William Kroll invented the Kroll process, a technique for producing titanium and zirconium. His work at the U.S. Bureau of Mines increased titanium production during World War II when it was badly needed. Strong as steel but 45% lighter, titanium is used in artificial joints, bicycle frames, and golf clubs. Zirconium, which effectively resists corrosion, is found in jet engines, surgical equipment, and fiber optics.
Wozniak, Steve, 1950–, MICROCOMPUTER FOR USE WITH VIDEO DISPLAY. Wozniak is best known for inventing the first personal computer. In 1976, he cofounded Apple Computer. The following year, he introduced the Apple II, a revolutionary computer that offered the consumer a keyboard, color graphics, and a disk drive. Today he is a noted philanthropist and is dedicated to teaching and inspiring youngsters to learn.